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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a chlorophyll-containing organelle found in eukaryotic cells that carry out photosynthesis
The fluid-filled inner portion of a chloroplast
slime layer
A thin protective structure loosely bound to the cell wall that protects the cell against drying, helps trap nutrients, and sometimes binds cells together
A comma-shaped bacterium
(also called metachromatic granule) Polyphosphate granules
conjugation pilus
(also called sex pilus) A type of pilus that attaches two bacteria together and provides a means for the exchange of genetic material
eukaryotic cell
A cell that has a distinct cell nucleus and other membrane bound structures
A eukaryotic cell that contains a single, unpaired set of chromosomes
(also called murein) A structureal polymer in the bacterial cell wall that forms a supporting net
(1) A protective structure outside the cell wall, secreted by the organism, (2) A network of connective fibers covering organs such as the lymph nodes
group translocation
An active transport process in bacteria that chemically modifies a substance so it cannot diffuse out of the cell
A device for maintaining the logarhythmic growth of a culture by the continuous addition of fresh medium
(Ribonucleic Acid)
Nucleic acid that carries information from DNA to sites where proteins are manufactured in cells and that directs and participates in the assembly of proteins
Ingestion of solids into cells by means of the formation of vacuoles
An organelle filled with enzymes that in animal cells oxidate amino acids and in plant cells oxidize fats
(also called lipopolysaccharide) A toxin incorporated in Gram-negative bacterial cell walls and released when the bacterium dies
spindle apparatus
A system of microtubules in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that guides the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosos
Fluid containing the same concentration of dissolved materials as in a cell; causes no change in cell volume
(plural: flagella) A long, thin, helical appendage of certain cells taht provides a means of locomotion
A Gram-negative bacterium that lacks the cell wall but has not lysed
The appearance of chromosomes as fine threads in cells
A protein fiber that makes up part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells
A structure that contains the DNA of organisms.
Aerobes or facultative anaerobes that form irregular clusters by dividing in two or more planes
(also called endotoxin) Part of the outer layer of the cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria
osmotic pressure
The pressure required to prevent the net flow of water molecules by osmosis
(plural: bacilli) A rodline bacterium
A membrane-bound inclusion in cells
cell membrane
(also called plasma membrane) A selectively permeable lipoprotein bilayer that forms the boundary between a bacterial cell's cytoplasm and its environment
A cell formed by the union of gametes (egg and sperm)
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that carries out oxidative reactions that capture energy
The semifluid substance inside a cell, excluding, in eukaryotes, the cell nucleus
A temporary footlike projection of cytoplasm associated with amoeboid movement
term used to refer to all substances containing polysaccharides found external to the cell wall
A protein tubule that forms the structure of cilia, flagella, and part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells
The internal membranes of photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria
Fluid-filled inner portion of a mitochondrion
(also called polysome) A long chain of ribosomes attached at different points along an mRNA molecule
A set of paired chromosomes in eukaryotic cells that are prepared to divide by mitosis or meiosis
simple diffusion
The net movement of particles from a region of higher to one of lower concentration; does not require energy from a cell
A bacterial cell without flagella
A network of protein fibers that support, give rigidity and shape to a eukaryotic cell and provide for cell movements
(plural: cocci)
A spherical bacterium
Pasteurella-Haemophilus group
Very small Gram-negative bacilli and coccobacilli that lack flagella and are nutritionally fastidious
Having flagella distributed all over the surface of a bacterial cell
An inclusion that is not bounded by a membrane and contains compacted substances that do not dissolve in the cytoplasm
diploid fibroblast strain
A culture derived from fetal tissues taht retains fetal capacity for rapid, repeated cell division
vegetative cell
A cell that is actively metabolizing nutrients
A eukaryotic cell that has paired sets of chromosomes
A special type of diffusion in which water molecules move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentratino across a selectively permeable membrane
The presence of flagella at both ends of the bacterial cell
periplasmic space
The space between the cell membrane and the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria that is filled with periplasm
A membrane-bound structure taht stores materials such as food or gas in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
Having two or more flagella at one or both ends of a bacterial cell
teichoic acid
A polymer attached to peptidoglycan in Gram-positive cell walls
A bacterial cell with a single flagellum
fluid-mosaic model
Current model of membrane structure in which proteins are dispersed in a phospholipid bilayer
One of the 3 Domains of living things; all members are eukaryotic
(plural: pili) A tiny hollow projection used to attach bacteria to surfaces (attachment pilus) or for conjugation (conjugation pilus)
nuclear pore
An opening in the nuclear envelope that allows for the transport of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
crista (cristae)
A fold of the inner mitochondrial membrane
hypotonic solution
A solution containing a concentration of dissolved material lower than that within a cell
Process in which vesicles form by invagination of the plasma membrane to move substances into eukaryotic cells
Golgi apparatus
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that receives, modifies, and transports substances coming from the endoplasmic reticulum
endosymbiotic theory
Holds that the organelles of eukaryotic cells arose from prokaryotes that came to live, in a symbiotic relationship, inside the eukaryote-to-be cell
endoplasmic reticulum
An extensive system of membranes that form tubes and plates in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells; involved in synthesis and transport of proteins and lipids
An internal membrane-enclosed structure found in eukaryotic cells
(plural: cilia) A short cellular projection used for movement that beats in coordinated waves
prokaryotic cell
A cell that lacks a nucleus; inside all bacteria
A resistant reproductive structure formed by fungi and actinomycetes; different from a bacterial endospore
nuclear region
(also called nucleoid) Central location of DNA, RNA, and some proteins in bacteria; not a true nucleus
(plural: spirilla) A flexible, wavy-shaped bacterium
Division process in eukaryotic cells taht reduces the chromosome number in half
an internal membrane of chloroplasts that contains chlorophyll
Process by which vesicles inside a eukaryotic cell fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents from the eukaryotic cell
A small membrane-bound organelle in animal cells that contains digestive enzymes
A granule or vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell
metachromatic granule
(also called volutin) A polyphosphate granule that exhibits metachromasia
A resistant, dormant structure, formed inside some bacteria, such as Bacillus and Clostridium, that can survive adverse conditions
selectively permeable
Able to prevent the passage of certain specific molecules and ions while allowing others through
nuclear envelope
The double membrane surrounding the cell nucleus in a eukaryotic cell
A nonrandom movement of an organism toward or away from light
amoeboid movement
Movement by means of pseudopodia that occurs in cells without walls, such as amoebas and some white blood cells
The semifluid portion of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells that is surrounded by the nuclear envelope
outer membrane
A bilayer membrane, forming part of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria
active transport
Movement of molecules or ions across a membrane against a concentration gradiant; requires expenditure of energy of ATP
attachment pilus
(also called fimbria) Type of pilus that helps bacteria adhere to surfaces
Those substances (enzymes, transport proteins) located in the periplasmic space of Gram-negative bacteria or in the older cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria
axial filament
(also called Endoflagellum) a subsurface filament attached near the ends of the cytoplasmic cylinder of spirochetes that causes the spirochete body to rotate like a corkscrew
plasma membrane
(also called a cell membrane) A selectively permeable lipoprotein bilayer that forms the boundary between the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell and its environment
(singular: bacterium) All prokaryotic organisms
cytoplasmic streaming
Process by which cytoplasm flows from one part of a eukaryotic cell to another
hypertonic solution
A solution containing a concentration of dissolved material greater than that within a cell
secretory vesicle
Small membrane-enclosed structure that stores substances coming from the Golgi apparatus
Property of exhibiting a variety of colors when stained with a simple stain
cell wall
Outer layer of bacterial, algal, fungal, and plant cells that maintains the shape of the cell
Phenomenon in which bacteria vary widely in form, even within a single culture under optimal conditions
L forms
Irregularly shaped naturally occurring bacterial with defective cell walls
facilitated diffusion
Diffusion (down a concentration gradient) across a membrane (from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration) with the assistance of a carrier molecule, but not requiring ATP
granulation tissue
Fragile, reddish, grainy tissue made up of capillaries and fibroblasts that appears with the healing of an injury
A Gram-positive bacterium from which the cell wall has been removed
Corkscrew-shaped motile bacteria
(1) A thin layer of bacteria adhering to the air-water interface of broth culture by their attachment pili. (2) A strengthened plasma membrane of a protozoan cell. (3) Film over the surface of a tooth at the beginning of plaque formation
Process by which the cell nucleus in a eukaryotic cell divides to form identical daughter nuclei
A protein that contributes directly to the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes
(plural: nucleoli) Area in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell that contains RNA and serves as the site for the assembly of ribosomes