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46 Cards in this Set

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What stimulates cells conversion from stem cells to either white or red blood cells?
Cytokines
What causes blood to clot outside of the body.
In the blood plasma the protein fibrinogen is soluble once it interacts with air it converts to fibrin and clots
What is the site of most ADAPTIVE (specific) immune response
Lymph nodes and spleen
APCs or Antigen presenting cells. Give 2 examples.
Macrophages and Dendritic cells (differentiated MONOCYTES)
What are the four phagocytic cells?
Monocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages and neutriphils.
What are the steps of phagocytosis
1.) Phagocyte consumes the pathogen (phagosome)
2.) next the pathogen fuses with a lysosome= phagolysosome.
Neutrophils actively fight infections what does their presence usually signify?
that the infection is active (growing/spreading).
How is pathogen recognition in phagocytosis acheived?
PRM's pattern recognition molecules recognize PAMP pathogen-assoiciated molecular pattern. the recognition sends a transmembrane signal resulting in activation of the phagocyte.
A common way in which phagocytic cells work is oxygen dependent?
Use of highly toxic compounds such as peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, oxygen radicals, and nitric acid to kill ingested bacteria.
Methods for avoiding pahocytosis
1.) Carotenoids- neutralize radicals (Staph aureus)

2.) others grow in the phagocyte (Myco tuberculosis)

3.) produce luekocidins which allow pathogen to be ingested and then kill the phagocyte

4.)bacterial capsules
The purpose of a bacterial capsule is to avoid phagocytes. Thus, antibiotics hindering capsules are given to enhance phagocytosis this process is called...
OPSONIZATION
What are the molecular mediaors of inflammation
Cytokines and chemokines
What phagocytic cell is first at the site of an infection? how is it attracted?
Neutrophills; chemokines are chemoattractants (interleukin-8)
In inflammatory response what is the purpose of a neutrophil
to become activated and signal for macrophages (by secreting cytokines)
Overview of the adaptive immune response
Cytotoxic t cells attack and destroy antigen-bearing cells. T helper 1 cells secrete cytokines to attract and activate macrophages to help. Yet T helper 2 cells stimulate b cells to make antibodies.
What is tolerance
the acquired INABILITY to make an adaptive immune respose to an individuals antigens.
Difference between antigens and immunogens
A foreign cell is an antigen. A foreign cell that causes an immune response is an immunogen.
what are haptens?
in order for an immune response to occur, an antigen needs to be a certain Molecular weight. When it is too light it is called a hapten (antigen; not immunogen)...
how do cytotoxic cells kill?
1.) they release perforins (which create holes in the pathogen).
2.) they secrete proteins that lead the pathogen to apoptosis.
What is the difference between Natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells?
NK cells respond in the abscence of MHC I.
Recall function of

T1 helper cells-
T2 helper cells-
T1= Activate macrophages
T2= Activate B cells to produce antibodies.
How is the complement system ordered to act?
Antibodies, themselves very specific, signal for the enactment of the ubiquiotous complement system.
Besides it not being specific what is one major drawback of the complement system?
it is inefficient against gram positive bacteria.
Two methods for actvating complement sytem
1.) classical complement- the result of antigen-antibody complex.

2.) Non antibody dependent- proteins activate the system.
In DNA vaccines, a bacterial plasmid (coding for an antigenic characteristic of the pathogen) is injected into a host and the host creates antibodies. This process serves two purposes:
1.) No chance of infection since there is no whole organism the body is becoming immune to a cell wall carbohydrate... etc.

2.) immunologists can choose what antigenic particle is best to make a person immune. (The most antigenic)
what according to the book is the "real fxn of MHC proteins"
to bind and present peptide antigens to T cells.
there are two classes of MHC protein. where are they found and what is their fxn?
MHC protein class # 1:
All nucleated cells
To present antigen for cytotoxic T cells.

MHC Protein class # 2:
found on B lymphocytes and monocyte derivatives (dendritic cells and Macrophages)
to present antigen to T helper cells who in turn either cause inflammation or antibody production.
What is a major STRUCTURAL difference between MHC class 1 and class 2 proteins.
MHC class 1: has closed ends and a small groove to bind to antigens (~8 AA in length)

Class 2: has open ends and a larger groove and can accomidate for larger antigens (of > 10 AA)
What are the structural components of an antibody?
Two heavy chains, two light chains. The upper opening is called the variable region this changes for all the different antibodies and recall this is where binding occurs.
What is the function of interluken 1?
to activate t helper cells in immune response (secreted by monocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells).
What is the fxn of IL 2?
it is secreted by T helper 2 cells and activate the cells that just secreted it.
What is the purpose of IL-4?
to stimulate plasma cells of B cells to secrete antibodies.
What is the purpose of Tumor necrosis factors?
induces necrosis of tumors. But also similar in fxn to IL-1 which stimulates the fxn of t helper 1 cells. Also influential in producing inflammatory response.
What is the purpose of chemokines such as (MCP-1)?
Chemokines attract cells of the immune system particularly macrophages and T cells.
what is polyclonal antisera?
A mixture of antibodies "from different lines".
what is a mono-clonal antibody?
Antibodies made from a single cloned B cell
What is the purpose of producing a hybridoma?
Antibody secreting cells (Plasma B cells) are short lived and therefore inefficient to engineer antibodies. B plasma cells are fused with myelomas (cancerous cells) "immortal cells" to produce antibodies.
how are monoclonal antibodies produced?
A mouse is injected with the anitgen (whose antibody is of interest) and allow the mouse to make antibodies. Pieces of the mouses spleen are removed (house antibodies) and are cultured and fused with myelomas. Later those myeloma cells that are not dividing are seperated.
The ability for an antibody to recognize a single antigen
Specificity
_______ defines the lowest amount of an antigen that can be detected.
Sensitivity
The only antibody-antigen complex test that quantifies sensitivity is
ELISA
the interaction of antibody with antigen to block or distort the antigen sufficiently to reduce or eliminate its effect
Neutralization
Neutralization reactions can occur
in vivo or in vitro
What are the major use of netutralization reactions?
to neutralize toxins with antitoxin. such as exotoxin of botulism or tetanus.
Two methods for conducting Elisa tests

Direct ELISA used for ?
Indirec Elisa used for ?
Direct Elisa for ANtigens
INDIRECT elisa for antibodies
HIV is determined by an Elisa test.

-what kind of ELISA?
-what do the results look like?
Indirect elisa

Hiv particles are first added then 2 antibodies and finally the patient sample. Based on the COLOR is proportional to the amount of antibody found. (more antibody= more virus)