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134 Cards in this Set

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2001 The Space Odyssey
1968, Arthur Clark, Stanley Kubrick, Clockwork Orange, Barry Lyndon, Dr. Strangelove, Lolita, earth to jupiter
afferent-
conducting towards the CNS structure- incoming communication
amino acids
cooh (acid group) and nh2 (amine group, can be represented as R) on a carbon
angstrom
angstrom is equal to, in units we are more familiar with, 10-10, or .1 nanometers.
anion
negatively charged ion.
anterior
front
arachnoid layer
very thin sheet of delicate connective tissue that follows the brains contours.
astrocyte
glial cell, star shaped, symmetrical, nutritive and support functions. Make the blood brain barrier by attaching to neurons and blood vessels.
autonomic nervous system-
part of the PNS that regulates the functioning of internal organs and glands. Balances the body’s internal organ’s to rest and digest through the parasympathetic (calming) nerves or to “fight or flight” through the sympathetic (arousing) nerves.
autonomic:
sympathetic and parasympathetic
Axon
root or "single fiber" of a neuron that carries messages to other neurons.
axon collaterals
branch of axon that branches at right angle of main axon.
axon hillock
base of axon at soma, where xxx process starts
basal ganglia-
group of nuclei in the forebrain that coordinates voluntary movements of the limbs and the body: located just beneath the neocortex and connected to the thalamus and to the midbrain. Includes caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus.
bilayer biological membrane
It has a hydrophilic outer edge and potato-like structures, hundreds of amino acids in some configuration. Diameter 5nm.
bipolar neuron
neuron with one axon and one dendrite.
bonding properties of carbon
like to have four bonds, bonds between carbons are stronger, any bonds not shown are hydrogen
brain vasculature: cerebral arteries
anterier, medial, posterior.
brainstem-
central structure of the brain, including hindbrain, midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus.
carbohydrate
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen in big, long chain. Provides fuel. Sucrose is C12H22O11
cation
positively charged ion.
cell membrane
made of phospholipid bilayer- phospholipid has hydrophlic, polar head and two hydrophobic tails without polarity. Head is phosphorus, tails are hydro-carbon lipids. Only a few small molecules, like oxygen can pass through.
cerebral cortical lobes
frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal
cerebral spinal fluid
clear solution of sodium chloride and other salts that fill the ventricles inside the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord beneath the arachnoid laer in the subaracnoid space.
cerebrum-
major structure of the forebrain, consisting of two virtually identical hemispheres- The cerebrum is the most recently evolved structure in the CNS.
chemistry of water
two hydrogen atoms share electrons with one oxygen atom. Molecule is polar with charged parts attracted to oppositely charged parts of neighboring water molecules. Each can hydrogen bond to four.
CNS
central nervous system (CNS)- brain and spinal cord. central to function and location.
corpus callosum-
fiber system connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
cranial nerves-
set of 12 nerve pairs that control sensory and motor functions of the head, neck, internal organs. Go directly from brain to body- remember 3 (1. Olfactory, 2. Optic, 10. Heart, digestive, chest & abodmen.
Darwin
On the Origin of Species, 1859, early thinker of genetics- natural selection
dendrite
receive information from other cells
dendrite
branch of a neuron that consists of an extension of the cell membrane. Receives information.
dendritic spine
protrustions froma dendrite that greatly increase its surface area and is the usual pont of dendritic contact with axons. The more surface area, the more information it can intake.
diameter of lipid bilayer (cell membrane
5 nanometer, or 50 angstrom
diencephalon-
(between brain) part of prosencephanlon- thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal body, third ventricle.- coordinates basic instinctual behaviors including temperature regulation, sexual behavior, and eating.
dimensions of molecules and cells
small molecules ~ 5 Å = 0.5 nm, diameter of lipid-bilayer membrane ~ 50 Å = 5 nm, diameter of typical medium size protein ~ 50 Å = 5 nm, neuronal synapse gap ~ 100 nm = 1000 Å = 0.1 micrometer, bacterial cell ~ 0.1 micrometer (100 nm) to 10 micrometers (0.01 millimeter), diameter of neuronal axon ~ 0.2 to 20 micrometers, nerve cell body ~ 5 to 100 micrometers, length of neuronal axon ~ micrometers to millimeters to meters.
dna
deoxyribonucleic acid. Two strands of RNA combined.
dorsal
top, above
dura mater
hard mother- tough double layer of protective fibrous tissue that encloses brain and spinal cord in sack.
efferent-
Conducting away from a CNS structure- outgoing messages.
elemental composition of the human body
most- oxygen, then carbon, then hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium.
end foot
knob at tip of an axon that conveys inf to other neurons- also called terminal button. Close to the axon of another neuron.
entric system
digestive system richly integrated with lots of neurons and neurotransmitters.
enzymes
proteins used to build cell structures.
ependymal
glial cell- small, ovoid, secretes cerebrospinal fluid. Lives in ventricles.
fat/lipid
carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, but they tend to have a lot less oxygen than carbohydrates, mostly carbons and hydrogens. If you had a whole bunch of carbons with a bunch of hydrogens on them that would be fatty.
forebrain-
evolutionary newest part of the brain, coordinates advanced cognitive functions such as thinking, planning, language- contains limbic system, basal ganglia and the neocortex.
frontal lobe-
cerebral cortex anterior to the central sulcus and beneath the frontal bone of the skull.
general features of vertebrate brains
prosencephalon (forebrain), mesencephalon (midbrain), rhombencephalon (hindbrain), spinal cord.the forebrain area, the cerebrum, and a kind of middle brain area which is called the optic tectum, and a rear brain area called the cerebellum, and another rear brain area, sort of a stem here labeled as medullais.
genes
pieces of information in dna describing how to make proteins by putting the right amino acids into a long chain in the right order.
genus Australopithecus
1-4 million years ago, last over 1 million years ago, first upright walkers, brain the size of modern apes.
glial cell
greek for glue; nervous system cells that provide help for neurons, bind them, provide nutrition, repair and protection.
gray matter-
areas of the nervous system composed predominantly of cell bodies and blood vessels
gyri-
bumps in cerebral cortex
gyrus-
small bumps formed by the folds in the brain.
hindbrain-
evolutionary oldest part of brain, contains pons, medulla, reticular formation and cerebellum- cooridintates and controls voluntary and involuntary movements.
hominid brain evolution
climate changes in Africa after tetonic event, great rift valley, dryness in Eastern region forced upright position to gather fruit from trees, stay cool (less surface exposed to sun), etc. drier climate became meat scavengers, brains of animals that eat fruit are larger- sensory, motor, spatial skills, memory, complex social structures, good learner/teacher. male/male, male/female, female/male relationships in humans. blood flow and cooling of blood, neotony- adults retain child-like features.
hominid evolution
5 million years, we are only currenlty living members of that family.
hominoid
human like- primates that walk upright- 5 million years
homo habilis
"handy human" first of genus homo, similar to australopithicus, but teeth more human, made tools
Homo neanderthalensis
larger brain than humans, found near Neander, Germany, hunted and used tools, lived at same time as homo sapiens. Grave sites, musical instruments, pets
Homo sapiens
200,000 years in Africa, 100,000 in Europe- migrated from africa. Coexisted with other hominoids until 30,000 year ago in europe and 18,000 years ago in asia. 14000 cubic cm brain
human CNS:
100 billion neurons, 5-10x as many glial cells
hydrophobic, hydrophilic, lipophobic, lipophilic
love/hate water/oil
hypothalamus-
diencephalon structure that contains many nuclei associated with temp. regulation, eating, drinking, sexual behavior, hormone production, etc.
inhibition-
a proecess by which the activity of a neuron or brain area is decreased or stopped.
interneurons
aka association neuron, interposed between sensory neuron and motor neuron-most of the neurones in the brain.
ion
atom with a net positive or negative charge.
lateral
side
limbic system-
disparate forebrain structures lying between the neocortex and brainstem that form a functional system controlling affective and motivated behaviors and certain forms of memory: includes cingulate cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, etc.
lysomes
sack-like vesicles that transport incoming supplies and move and store wastes.
main elements of a cell
oygen, carbon and hydrogen
medial
middle
meninges
dura mater, arachnoid layer, pia mater
mental states
internal subjective experiences, like our thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and awareness and consciousness,
mesencephalon-
mid brain- vision and hearing.
microglial
glial cell- small, mesodermally derived, defensive function. Orinate in the blood and scavenges debris from nervous system.
midbrain-
central part of the brain that contains neural circuits for hearing and seeing as well as orienting movements.
mind
a collection of mental states. Mental states would be internal subjective experiences, like our thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and awareness and consciousness. We all know what feelings are, expressions of emotion.
mitocchondria
cells energy plant
molecular structures
atoms bonded
motor neuron
(PNS) carry information from spinal cord and brain to make muscles contract.- govern reflect, autonomic functions, organs as well as voluntary.
mRNA
messanger RNA that carries bluprint from RNA to ribosomes
multiple scleurosis
nervous system disorder from loss of myelin around neurons.
myelin
formed by a glial cell made of
neorcortex (cerebral cortex)-
newest, outer layer of the forebrain and composed of about six layers of gray matter that creates our reality. primarily creates and responds to perceptual world.
nerve-
large collection of axons coursing together outside the CNS.
nerve cell body dimenstions
a few micrometers up to 100 micrometers.
neuron
nerve cell- 100 billion in brain, but less than number of glial cells in brain. Information processing unit of the nervous system.
Niels Bohr's interest in genetics
So what Bohr was saying was that we really want to know what life is, and if we look at a cell maybe we will see what is going on.
nucleic acid
largest molecule in the body, DNA is a nucleic acid
nucleotides in dna
adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine
occipital lobe-
cerebral cortex at the back of the brain and beneath the occipital bone.
oligodendroglial
glial cell- asmmetrical; forms myelin around axons in brain and spinal cord.
paralysis
loss of sensation and movement due to nervous system injury
parasympathetic nervous system-
part of the autonomic nervous system- acts in opposition to the sympathetic nervous system- preparing the body to rest and digest by reversing the alarm response or stimulating digestion. Comes from cranium and sacral. Think of exhaling- digesting, relaxing.
parietal lobe-
cerebral cortex posterior to the central sulcus and beneath the parietal bone at the top of the skull. Vision hemispheres. somatosensory, sensation, some auditory
peptide bonds
formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). This usually occurs between amino acids. The resulting CO-NH bond is called a peptide bond, and the resulting molecule is an amide
peripheral nervous system (PNS)-
all the neurons in the body located outside the central nervous system. PNS: muscle, sensory, enteric, autonomic
pia mater
soft mother- moderately tough membrane of connective tissue fibers that cling to the brain's surface.
polarity of molecules
shared orbiting electrons give one molecule a pos and other a neg charge.
polypeptide
the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. The link between one amino acid residue and the next is an amide bond and is sometimes referred to as a peptide bond.
posterior
back
primary, secondary, tertiary structure of proteins
The primary structure is the identity of them all lined up, and the secondary structure is how they fold up locally into alpha helices. And then the tertiary structure is how the whole thing folds up into one big glob.
prosencephalon-
front brain- olfaction.
protein
long chain of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds. More than 50.
proteins
long chains of small molecules called amino acids
reticular formation-
midbrain area in which nuclei and fiber pathways are mixed, producing a netlike appearance; associated with sleep-wake behavior and behavior arousal.
rhombencephalon-
hind brain- movement and balance.
riboxomes
cell parts that make proteins
rna
riboneucleic acid- half of dna.
schwann cell
glial cell- asymmetrical; wraps around peripheral nerves for form myelin. Not in the CNS, in the PNS
sensory neuron-
(PNS) neurons that carry incoming information from sensory receptors into the spinal cord and brain. Simple, bipolar
soma
cell body- core region of the cell contain the nucleus and other organelles for making proteins.
somatic nervous system-
part of the pns that includes the cranial and spinal nerves to and from the muscles, joints, and skin that produce movement, transmit incoming sensory input, and inform the CNS about the position and movement of the body
somatosensory neuron
brain cell that brings sensory information from the body into the spinal cord.
structure and properties of water
H2O- 2 hydrogen, each sharing an electron with an oxygen. Oxygen as net negative, hydrogen is positive- polar.
structure of neuron
soma (cell body)(with DNA, protoplasm), dendrite, axon,
sulci-
grooves of cerebral cortex
sulcus (pl. sulci)-
a groove in brain matter, usually a groove found in the neocortex or cerebellum.
sympathetic nervous system-
Part of the autonomic nervous system, arouses the body for action such as mediating the involuntary fighr or flight response to alarm by incrasing heart rate and blood pressure. Inhales, dilates pupils, ejaculates.
synapse
junction between two neurons, usually between one endfoot and another dendritic spine.
synapse gap size
it is about 100nm, or .1 micrometer
tectum-
part of midbrain, roof area of ventricle- functions are sensory and processing, esp. visual and auditory, orienting movements.
tegmentum-
floor area of midbrain. collection of nuclei with movement-related, species specific, and pain-perception functions.
telencephalon-
end brain (part of prosencephalon)- neo cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, olfactory bulb, lateral ventricles.
temporal lobe-
lobe to side of head, above ear and behind eyes. Cortex lying below the lateral fissure, beneath the temporal bone at side of the skull. Largeley auditory.
thalamus-
diencephalon structure through which information from all sensory systems is integrated and projected into the appropriate region of the neocortex.
tract-
large collection of axons coursing together within the CNS.
tumor
mass of new tissue that grows uncontrolled and independent of surrounding structures.
types of glial cell
ependymal, astrocyte, oligodendroglial, schwann
ventral
underneath
ventricle-
a cavity in the brain that contains cerebral spinal fluid. four of them.
white matter-
areas of the nervous system rich in fat-sheatherd neural axons.