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22 Cards in this Set

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What type of ribosomes do the mitochondria of eukaryotes have?
70s
Viroids? Structure?
Single stranded circular RNA that forms a seemingly double stranded structure by intra-strand base pairing.
Do viroids code for protein? What do they do? Where are they found?
-No
-They interfere with regulatory RNA
-Found in plants; no animal forms known
Prions
polypeptides that cause pre-existing healthy proteins in an organism to misfold and cause neurodegeneration
The cytoplasmic membrane consists of?

General size?
-Phospholipids and Proteins

-6-8 nanometers wide
Some peripheral proteins are _________ and have been shown to have a lipid tail on the ___________ of proteins that serves to anchor one portion of protein to the membrane
-lipoproteins
-amino terminus
proteins that have both hydrophobic and hydrophillic regions are called ______?
ampipathic
Plasma membrane's effect on polar solutes?
polar solutes do not readily move passively across the membrane
Plasma membrane's effect on small nonpolar and fat soluble substances like fatty acids, alcohols, and benzene?
They may enter or exit cell by dissolving in lipid phase and diffusing through it.
Plasma membrane's effect on charged molecules such as amino acids, organic acids, and inorganic salts
They do not readily pass through membrane but instead must be transported by specific mechanisms
Plasma membrane's effect on water?
Water is uncharged (weakly polar) and small enough to penetrate membrane by passing between phospholipid molecules: accelerated by aquaporins: proteins that form membrane spanning channels that specifically transport water
Plasma membrane's effect on very large molecules like polysaccharides, protein, and lipids?
They do not pass through membrane. Must be hydrolyzed by extracellular enzymes and smaller units transported in
Coccus?
spherical or ovoid
Rod or bacillus?
cylindrical
Spirillum?
rod twists or spiirals
Spirochete?
long, helically coiled (spiral-shaped) cells
Vibrio?
half moon
Diplococcus?
divide in 1 plane & stay together for 1 division; pairs
Streptococcus?
divide in one plane & remain together for many divisions; chains
Staphylococcus?
divide in many planes and remain attached; like bunch of grapes
Tetracocci?
1 plane & then perpendicular plane
Sacrinae?
like tetra & plane cross sections behind; cuboidal packets