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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Characteristics of Living Organisms:
• Consist of one or more cells
• Contain genetic information
• Use genetic information to reproduce
• Are genetically related and have evolved
• Con convert molecules obtained from their environment into new biological molecules
• Can extract energy from the environment and use it to do biological work
• Can regulate their internal environment
Cell theory
• Cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms.
• Cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms.
• All cells come form preexisting cells.
• All cells are similar in chemical composition.
• Complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division.
the total sum of all the DNA molecules
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
molecules are long sequences of four different subunits called nucleotides
A unit of heredity. Used here as the unit of genetic function which carries the information for a single polypeptide or RNA.
make up much of an organism’s structure and are the molecules that govern the chemical reactions within cells.
Organisms whose genetic material in not contained within a nucleus: the bacteria and archaea
The sum total of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism.
Organized structure found in or on eukaryotic cells.
Organisms whose cells contain their genetic material inside a nucleus
Surface area-to-volume ratio
As an object increases in volume, its surface area also increase, but not to the same extent.
• The volume of a cell determines the amount of chemical activity it carries out per unit of time.
• The surface area of a cell determines the amount of substances the cell can take in from the outside environment and the amount of waste products it can release to the environment.
Of an optical device such as a microscope, the smallest distance between two lines that allows the lines to be seen as separate from one another
Plasma Membrane
The membrane that surrounds the cell, regulating the entry and exit of molecules and ions
contains the hereditary material (DNA) of the cell.
The rest of the material enclosed in the plasma membrane.
consists mostly of water that contains dissolved ions, small molecules, and soluble macromolecules such as proteins.
are complexes of RNA and proteins about 25nm in diameter. They are the sites of protein synthesis.
contains most of the cell’s genetic material (DNA).
a power plant and industrial park, where energy is stored in the bonds of carbohydrates and fatty acids is converted into a form more useful to the cell (ATP).
endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus
are compartments in which some proteins synthesized by ribosomes are packaged and sent to appropriate locations in the cell.
Lysosomes and Vacuoles
are cellular digestive systems in which large molecules are hydrolyzed into unable monomers.
(plant cells) perform photosynthesis
molecules containing carbon atoms flanked by hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups.
Carbohydrate Roles:
They have two major biochemical roles: 1. Carbohydrates are a source of energy that can be released in a form usable by blood tissues. 2.Carbohydrates serve as carbon skeletons that can be rearranged to form new molecules that are essential for biological structures and functions.
(mono “one”, saccharide “sugar”)such as glucose, ribose, and fructose, they are the monomers form which the larger carbohydrates are constructed.
(di “two”) consist of two monosaccharides linked together by covalent bonds.
oligo “several”) are made up of several monosaccharides.
(poly “many”) such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose are large polymers composed of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides.
all living things contain the monosaccharide.
(six)- all have the formation C6H12O6 including glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose.
(five)- five-carbon sugar including ribose and deoxyribose.
Glycosidic Linkages
monosaccharide that are covalently bonded together by condensation reactions.
Hydrocarbons that are insoluble in water because of their many nonploar covalent bonds.
triglycerides that are solid at room temperature.
triglycerides that are liquid at room temperature.
Ester Linkage
A condensation reaction in which the carboxyl group of a fatty acid reacts with the hydroxyl group of an alcohol. Lipids are formed this way.
all the bonds between the carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are single bonds-there are no double bonds.
the hydrocarbon chain contains one or more double bonds.
Lipids containing a phosphate group and fatty acids bound to glycerol by ester linkages.
a sheet two molecule thick, with water excluded from the core.
small molecule that are not synthesized by the human body so must be acquired from the diet.
Peptide Bond
The carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another, undergoing a condensation reaction.
Primary Structure
The precise sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
Secondary Structure
Consists of regular, repeated spacial patterns in different regions of a polypeptide chain.
Two types of Secondary Stucture
#1. The alpha helix is a right-handed coil resulting from H-bonds that from between the g+ of the N-H of one amino acid and the g- of the C=O of another.
#2. Beta Pleated Sheet is formed from two or more polypeptide chains that are almost completely extended and aligned. The sheet is stabilized by H-bonds between the N-H groups on one chain and the C=O groups.
Tertiary Structure
Polypeptides fold, forming specific shapes. Folds are stabilized by H-bonds and disulfide bridges.
Quaternary Structure
Two or more polypeptide assemble to form larger protein molecules.
The specific shape and structure of a protein allows it to bind non-covalently to another molecule.
The loss of a proteins normal 3-D structure by and increase in temperature, alterations in pH, or high concentrations of polar substances.
Help proteins fold correctly.
Fluid Mosaic Model
The general design of a lipid bilayer.
a special preparation method for electron microscopy.
Transmembrane Proteins
Integral membrane proteins that protrude on both sides of the membrane.
Consists of a carbohydrate covalently bonded to a lipid.
Consists of a carbohydrate covalently bonded to a protein.
Low Temperature:
High Cholesterol=high fluidity
Low Cholesterol= low fluidity

High Temperature
High Cholesterol=low fluidity
Low Cholesterol= high fluidity
Induced Fit
A change in enzyme shape caused by substrate binding.
the maintenance of stable internal conditions.
Inhibitors can bind to enzymes, slowing down the rates of enzyme catalyzed reactions.
Irreversible Inhibition
Some inhibitors covalently bond to certain side chains at the active site of an enzyme, thereby permanently inactivating the enzyme by destroying its capacity to interact with its normal substrate.
Reversible Inhibition
A reversible inhibitor binds to an enzyme's active site non-covalently.
Two types of Reversible Inhibition
Competitive Inhibitors: Compete with the natural substrate for the active site.
Noncompetitive Inhibitors: Bind to the enzyme at a site distinct form the active site.
Allosteric Site
Non-Competitive Inhibitors binds to a place other than the active site therefore changing the shape of the enzyme.
begins glucose metabolism in all cells and produces two molecules of the three-carbon product pyruvate. A small amount of the energy stored in glucose is captured in usable forms. Glycolysis does NOT use O2.
Cellular Respiration
Uses O2 from the environment and completely converts each pyruvate molecule into 3 molecules of CO2.In this process a great deal of energy is stored in the covalent bonds of pyruvate is released and transferred to ADP and ATP.
does not involve O2. Fermentation converts pyruvate into lactic acid or ethyl alcohol. Much less energy is released by fermentation than cellular respiration.
A 3 carbon acid; the end product of glycolysis and the raw material for the citric acid cycle.
What are the three metabolic processes in the harvesting of energy from glucose:
-Cellular Respiration
The type of energy-harvesting processes in cells in the presence of O2.
When O2 is available as the final electron acceptor, four pathways operate.
#1. Glycolsis takes place first and is followed by the three pathways of cellular respiration: pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.
The type of energy-harvesting processes in cells in the absences of O2.
When O2 is unavailable, pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain do not function, and the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is further metabolized by fermentation.
Is the gain of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule. (H+)
Is the loss of one or more electrons. (H+)
Oxidation and Reduction...
always occur together.
Oxidizing Agent
The reactant that becomes reduced.
Reducing Agent
The reactant that becomes oxidized.
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD)
The coenzyme NAD is a key electron carrier in redox reactions.
What are the two chemically different forms of NAD?
-Oxidized (NAD+)
NADH + H+ + 1/2 O2> NAD+ + H2O
-Reduced (NADH + H+)
NAD+ + 2H > NADH + H+
Complex chemical transformation in the cell occur in...
a series of separate reactions that form a metabolic pathway.
Each reaction in a metabolic pathway is catalyzed by...
specific enzyme.
Are metabolic pathways similar in all organisms?
Yes, they are similar from bacteria to humans.
What are the two stages of Glycolysis?
#1. Energy-investing reactions that use ATP.
#2. Energy-harvesting reaction that produce ATP.
Are the first five reactions of glycolysis endergonic or exergonic.