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39 Cards in this Set

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Atelectasis
Collapse of the lung, as might occur when air enters the pleural cavity due to a chest wound.
Tidal Volume
The volume of air inhaled and exhaled in a normal, resting breath, typically about 500 ml.
Ureters
The tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Nucleus Pulposus
The soft inner sphere of an intervertebral disk. It acts like a rubber ball when compressed, and provides elasticity and compressibility to the disk. Its expansion is limited by an outer ring of fibrocartilage.
Transduction
The transfer by a lysogenic virus of a portion of a host cell genome to a new host.
Colostrum
Highly nutritious, yellowish “pre-milk” secreted by the mammary glands for two or three days after childbirth until the true milk is produced. Colostrum is high in proteins and low in fat, and contains large amounts of IgA antibodies that help to protect
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
The valve separating the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery.
Relative Refractory Period
The period of time following an action potential when it is possible, but difficult, for the neuron to fire a second action potential due to the fact that the membrane is further from threshold potential.
Adventitia
The outermost membranous covering of an organ.
Glial Cell
One of four types of supporting cells found in the central nervous system. The glial cells include astrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia, and oligodendrocytes.
Amber Suppressor
A tRNA coded for by a mutant allele so that its anticodon is altered in such a way as to insert an amino acid at an amber codon (UAG, stop codon) during translation.
Monocistronic mRNA
mRNA that codes for a single type of protein, such as is found in eukaryotic cells.
Dermatome
The area of skin that is innervated by the cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve.
Kyphosis
An abnormal exaggerated thoracic curvature of the vertebral column (“hunchback”) commonly seen in older, postmenopausal women with symptoms of calcium deficiency (e.g., osteomalacia, osteoporosis).
Cytokine
Proteins made and secreted by cells that affect the behavior of other cells. The best known cytokines are those secreted by the cells of the immune system that stimulate proliferation of other immune system cells (e.g., IL-2, IL-4, etc.).
Falciform Ligament
The large ligament that separates the left and right lobes of the liver and suspends the liver from the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm.
Thrombocytopenia
A condition in which the number of platelets in the blood is reduced. This causes spontaneous hemorrhage from small blood vessels throughout the body.
Testicular feminization
The development of a female phenotype in an individual with an XY genotype.
Chiasma
A site of crossing-over, as observed in homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Gluconeogenesis
The formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors.
Sinoatrial node
A region of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the right atrium of the heart that initiate the impulse for heart contraction. For this reason it is known as the "pacemaker" of the heart.
Hypercapnia
High blood levels of carbon dioxide.
Achondroplasia
An abnormal genetic condition in which cartilage formation (and subsequently endochondral bone growth) are defective. This results in an abnormally short stature and an enlarged head.
Circle of Willis
An arterial anastomosis connecting the anterior and posterior blood supplies to the brain.
Portal Triad
A structure consisting of three vessels (a hepatic artery, a hepatic portal vein, and a bile duct) found at each of the six corners of the hexagonal-shaped liver lobules.
Gubernaculum
The strong, fibrous cord that mechanically guides the testes into the scrotal sac approximately two months before birth.
Hypervariable Site
The portion of the variable region of an antibody gene that determines the antibody specificity.
Antipruritic Drugs
Lotions and other forms of medication used to reduce itching.
Active Immunity
Long-term immunity acquired by encountering an antigen and developing memory cells.
Detrusor Muscle
The muscular wall of the bladder.
Parotid Gland
The largest extrinsic (outside the oral cavity) salivary gland. It is located anterior to the ear. This is the gland affected by a mumps infection.
Signal Sequence
A short sequence of amino acids, usually found at the N-terminus of a protein being translated, that directs the ribosome and its associated mRNA to the membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where translation will be completed.
Lymphocyte
The second most common of the five classes of leukocytes. Lymphocytes are involved in specific immunity and include two cell types, B-cells and T-cells. B-cells produce and secrete antibodies and T-cells are involved in cellular immunity.
Chief Cells
Pepsinogen-secreting cells found at the bottom of the gastric glands.
Autograft
Tissue grafts transplanted from one body location to another in the same person.
Canaliculus
Very small tube or channel, such as is found between lacunae (connecting them together) in compact bone.
Cortical Reaction
The release of the contents of the cortical granules of an oocyte that occurs after fertilization. This requires an increase in intracellular calcium and causes the separation of the oocyte plasma membrane from the zona pellucida...
Stroke Volume
The volume of blood pumped out of the heart in a single contraction.
Hyperkalemia
High blood levels of potassium.