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39 Cards in this Set

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saponification
cleaving of TG's with NaOH
mlclr structure of fatty acids:
carbon chain with carboxylic acid
***FA's enter into glycolysis
two carbons at a time***
AA's used by the human body are called
alpha-AA's
if the AA contains CA in full, it's acidic
if it contains NH2, it's basic
isoelectric point, pI
the more acidic the R-group, the lower the pI;

follows pH
glucose is called an aldose,
because of the aldehyde that is contains (in open-chain form)

also known as aldohexose

fructose is called a ketose
anomeric carbon
only carbon in the ring form that's attached to both Oxygens
a six-membered ring is also called a
pyranose

and five-membered, a furanose
sucrose
alpha, glucose + fructose
maltose
alpha, glucose x2
lactose
Beta, galactose + glucose
amylose/starch

cellulose
alpha linkage, chain of glucose mlcls


Beta, chain of glucose
starch
alpha, glucose mlcls
electron shielding ==>
protons within the same cmpd absorbing EM energy at Different field strengths
nmr spectrum =
graph of the magnetic field strengths absorbed by the hydrogens of a specific cmpd at a single frequency
each NMR peak represents
chemically-equivalent hydrogens
splitting of peaks is created by
neighboring H's that are NOT equivalent
area under the peaks ~
number of equivalent H's
nmr: EWG on a compound =>

(electrons shield)
H's less shilded =>

more downfield
nmr: EDG on a compound =>
H's more shielded =>

more upfield
for C-nmr,
ignore splitting
fingerprint region of IR spec.:
600-1400 cm- region

identifies a compound uniquely
IR:

atoms with greater mass ~
lower frequencies

double and triple bonds ~ higher frequencies
UV spectrum

spectrometry
20-400 nm range

detects conjugated double bonds
(double bonds separated by a single bond: C=C-C=C)
UV spec. trend
30 to 40 nm increase for each additional conjugated double bond

5 nm increase for each additional alkyl group
carbonyls also absorb light in
the UV region
if a cmpd has 8 or more double bonds, its absorbance moves into
the visible spectrum
mass spec.
parent peak all the way to the right, made up of mlcls that didn't fragment

all peaks are assigned abundances as percentages of the base peak
mass spec:

the radius of curvature depends on the
mass-to-charge ratio of the ion

most of the ions have a charge of +1
chromatography =
separation

more polar = greater affinity for the surface = moves more slowly
column chromatography
solution with mixture dripped in to tube

things separate inside, drip out individually

collect each individually - more polar = moves slowest = comes out last
paper chromatography
Rf factor: distance components have traveled / distance solvent has traveled

- for nonpolar, Rf closer to 1

- for polar components, Rf closer to 0
thin-layer chromatography
~ to paper chromatography, except glass or plastic is used, and iodine chamber
Distillation
separation by slow heating

soln's components need to have at least 20 degree C difference in BP

component with the lower BP (and thus higher vapor pressure) will boil off and be captured

then condensed in a cool tube
azeotrope is a soln that has a LOWER
BP than either of its components individually

distillation will have no effect on it - that is, the vapor will be made up of the components in the same ratios

a 95% ethanol - water soln will be 95% ethanol-water vapor
crystallization
**pure substances form crystals more easily than impure ones**

but crystallization is a **very inefficient method of separation**

an exothermic process
extraction
***like dissolves like***

so polar dissolves polar, nonpolar dissolves nonpolar
3 steps of extraction:
1. add SA

2. add WB

3. add SB