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18 Cards in this Set

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Addition Reactions of Aldehydes
1. hydration
2. acetal and ketal formations
3. rxn with cyanohydrins
4. condensation w/ ammonia derivatives.
Hydration of aldehydes and ketones
1.in the presence of water, aldehydes and ketones form gem-diols, where H2O is the nucelophile
2. this slow rxn can be sped up by addition of an acid or base
Acetal & Ketal Formation
1. hemiacteal is formed from an aldehyde/ketone and an alcohol.
2. acetals are formed when another alcohol is added to the hemiacetal
3. rxn catalyzed by anhydrous acid & convertred back w/aqueous acid
Formation of Cyanohydrins
1.cyanide ion attacks the carbon atom on the carbonyl of an aldehyde or ketone
2. Cyanohydrins are unstable
Condensation with Ammonia Derivatives
1.Ammonia and its derivatives are nucleophiles.
2. Simplest form: Imine
3. Rxn can proceed to more compounds after LG leaves tet. intermediate
Aldehydes oxidized to carboxylic acid
Oxidation reagents used: KMnO4, CrO3, Ag2O, H2O2
Aldehydes and Ketones oxidized to alcohols
Use oxidation reagent LAH (or NaBH4 when milder conditions are needed)
Two methods to reduce aldehydes and ketones to alkanes
1. Wolff-Kishner Reduction
2. Clemmensen Reduction
Wolff-Kishner Reduction
1. only good when product is stable under basic conditions
Aldehyde/Ketone + H2NNH2-> hydrazone + base/heat -> alkane
Clemmensen Reduction
1. doesn't have base-resrtictions that Wolff-Kishner does
2. Aldehye /Ketone + Hg(Zn), HCl -> alkane
Wittig Reaction
1. method of forming alkenes from aldehydes and ketones.
2. goes by formation of an ylide/ phosphorane
Aldol Condensation
1. one aldehyde acts as a nucleophile (enol form) and the other as the target (keto form)
2. Higher temps and stronger bases are need to make a,b- unsaturated aldehydes (lose h2O)
Michael Rxn
1. Nucelophilic Sn2 rxn between two a,b unsaturated carbonyl compounds
2. catalyzed by a base
Physical properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
1. carbonyl group has a dipole moment, which elecated the bp, but it is NOT as strong as H-bonding
Synthesis of Aldehydes and Ketones
1. oxidation of alcohols
2. ozonolysis of alkenes
3. friedal-crafts acylation
Oxidation of Alcohols
1. aldehydes are made from oxidized primary alcohols
2. ketones are made from oxidized secondary alcohols
Ozonolysis of Alkenes
double bonds can be oxidatively cleaved by ozone to make aldehyes/ ketones
Friedal-crafts acylation
produces ketones from an acyl halide and an aromatic compound