• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/49

Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the s character and p character percentage for an:
SP
SP2
SP3
SP = 50 % for each
SP2 = 33% s and 67% for p
SP3 = 25% s and 75% for p
What is the molecular geometry:
SP
SP2
SP3
SP = is linear and angle is 180
SP2 = is trigonal planar and angle is 120
SP3= is tetrahedral and angle is 109.5
How do you determine the degree of unsaturation and what does unsaturated mean
Unsaturated means one double bond or a ring and the formula for degree of unsaturation is:
((2n + 2)-X/2)
X is for hydrogens and halogens.
If Nitrogen then add one carbon and add one hydrogen
Describe what a degree of unsaturation of 2 means
This could mean:
2 double bonds,
2 rings
1 ring and 1 double bond
What is the trend if you have a shorter bond length, when comparing BDE and number of bonds
The BDE will be higher and the number of bonds will also be higher
What does BDE mean and how should you use it to compare different bonds in comparison to similar bonds
BDE is the energy required for homolytically cleave and should ONLY be used for similar bonds
What are the characteristics of a regiosmer and what are the other names for this isomer? Also are they easy to separate....
These are called constitutional isomers, regiosomers or structural isomers. They are the same formula, just connected differently. Yes they are easy to separate.
What are some characteristics of an conformational isomer?
Can’t separate at room temperature
Same atomic connectivity but differ by rotation around sigma bond
What are the four rules for giving absolute stereocenter configuration
Put the priority on the atom with the highest atomic number (then atomic weight)


If dashed line is not 4 then switch two numbers so it is.

Only label 1-3

If followed step 2 then switch R and S
What do entiomers share in common, concerning physical properties
They share almost all chemical properties
What makes an entiomer
They have at least one chiral center and all the chiral centers are different
What property is different with enantiomers
The optical rotation is the same magnitude but opposite direction
Is a racemic mixture of enantiomers optically active and is a meso compound optically active
No
What is used to separate enantiomers
Resolution
What is used to separate diasteromers
Fractional Distilation
What is used to separate constituitional isomers
Simple Distilation
What isomer is this based on these characteristics:
o Must have two chiral centers
o Not all chiral centers are opposite
o No way to determine specific rotation
o They also have different chemical properties
Diasteromers
What makes an epimer
An epimer is a fisher projection for a sugar and differs at one sterocenter
How do you specify the D or L in an epimer
o The d or l is being specified by the highest number chiral center in the fisher projection
 If hydroxyl group on the right it is D
What is an anomer
It is a cyclized ring of epimer
Where do anomers differ
o They differ at the anomeric carbon which is C-1
What are some characteristics of a meso compound?
o Can’t have meso compounds
o Optically inactive
o Have even number of chiral compounds
o Have to look at the mirror image
What is needed to have conjugation/resonance
You need to have three or more sp/sp2 in a row
What makes the best resonance structure, write in order of priortity
Fill Octet rule
Minimize the separation of charge
Having the negative charge on electronegative
What happens if you have an lone pair atom concerning resonance
If atoms with lone pairs is adjacent to sp2 then it is sp2
When does melting point/boiling increase
Longer chain and increase IMF
When does Boiling/Melting decrease
Add more chains
How many hydrocarbons in water are considered soluble
5 or less
What are electron donating
Atoms which are not electronegative
What are electron withdrawing
Atoms which are highly electronegative
What usually stablizes electron rich, anion
Electron withdrawing
What stabilizes electron poor
Electron donating
What are alkyl substituents always on MCAT, elctron donating or withdrawing
Donating
What is the most favorable rings in order
6 >5 > 7
When drawing chair conformations, what corresponds to up and with the chair
If dashed lines go up
If solid go with chair
What steriosomer is does this description fit?
They are similar in all physical and chemical but differ in optical rotaation
All chiral centers are opposite
If two together their is no optical activity
They are non-superimposable
Enantiomers
What process separates enantiomers
Resolution
What represents this steriosomer?
Must have all chiral centers
One of the chiral centers aren't opposte
Diasteromer
How do you separate a diasteromer
Fractional Distillation
When classifying an epimer, how do you classify?
The D or L is specified based on the highest chiral center number in the fisher projection
When an fisher has one of its chiral center that is opposite from the other pair, what is this called?
Epimer
In a geometric isomer, E,Z, how do you rank the sudes
Use the atomic weight
In sugars, what is the name of the carbon that makes the chain an epimer?
An epimeric carbon
If you increase branching, what happens to mp and bp
You will decrease
You increase length chain and IMF, what happens to mp and bp
You will increase
If you have a meso compound, how can you tell how many steroisomer?
2*n-1= n is numbr of chiral centers
Are meso compounds optically active
No
Are alkyl subuinits always donating or withdrawing
Donanting
To be aromatic what must a compound be
Must be conjugated
Must be in a ring system
Must follow the 4n+2 rule