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33 Cards in this Set

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Virus
Tiny infectious agents that contain a capsid, which holds the nucleic acid, and a lipid rich envelope. Bacteriophages also contain a tail, base plate, and tail fibers. Viruses are not living and do not carry out any type of respiration. They require no nutrients, using energy acquired by their host cell. They cannot reproduce inside nonliving organ matter. Viruses reproduce at the expense of a host.
Lytic Infection
The virus commandeers the cell's reproductive machinery and begins reproducing new viruses which causes lysis of the cell.
Lysogenic Infection
The viral DNA is incorporated into the host genome, or, if RNA it is reverse transcribed and then incorporated into the genome. It is a temperate virus and does not show activity until some sort of stress is present.
Temperate Virus
May infect a cell, but no symptoms are shown, the viral DNA remains dormant or latent and is called a provirus. Becomes active under some sort of stress.
Vaccine
Can be either an injection of antibodies or an injection of a non-pathogenic virus with the same capsid or envelope (immune system creates own antibodies).
Retroviruses
Carries the enzyme reverse transcriptase in order to create DNA from its RNA.
Prokaryotes
Do not have a membrane bound nucleus and do not contain any complex membrane bound organelles. Are divided into two groups bacteria and archaea.
Archaea
Are similar to Eucaryotes.
Bacteria Classification
1) Energy Source 2) Carbon Source; Autotrophs and heterotrophs differ in their source of carbon: autotrophs use CO2 and heterotrophs use organic matter. 'Photo' and 'Chemo' refer to where the organism derives its energy; photo from light and chemo from chemicals. Only prokaryotes can aquire energy from an inorganic source other than light.
Nucleoid
The DNA, RNA, and protein complex in prokaryotes.
Cocci
Round
Bacilli
Rod-shaped
Plasma Membrane
Phospholipid bilayer (phosphate group, two fatty acid chains, glycerol backbone), glycolipids, integral proteins (Amphipathic proteins from inside to outside of membrane), extrinsic proteins(surface of membrane). Most prokaryotic membranes do not contain cholesterol.
Electrochemical Gradient
Combination of chemical and electrical gradients and determines the overall flow of different molecules.
Semipermeability
Most membranes slow the diffusion of molecules. Size and polarity determine permeability. Larger and more polar molecules have tougher time passing through membrane.
Passive diffusion
Molecules move through leakage channels across the membrane due to randomn motion.
Carrier Proteins
Assist large or really charged molecules through membranes.
Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion assisted by carrier proteins.
Active Transport
Movement of molecule against electrochemical gradient. Requires energy expenditure.
Bacterial Envelope
Surrounds Protoplast (plasma membrane and everything inside it) contains cell wall which helps plasma membrane withstand the hydorstatic pressure created by the movement of water.
Hypertonic
More particles inside than outside. Leads to diffusion of water inside.
Isotonic
Same amount of particles inside and outside. No movement of water.
Hypotonic
More particles outside than inside. Leads to movement of water outside.
Peptidoglycan
Makes up cell wall, is a series of dissaccharide polymer chains with amino acids.
Gram Staining
A method for classifying bacteria according to cell wall.
Gram- Positive Bacteria
Have a large peptidoglycan cell wall.
Gram- Negative Bacteria
Have a small peptidoglycan cell wall but also have a phospholipid bilayer outside of the cell wall.
Flagella
Made from flagellin, move counterclockwise direction to move bacteria.
Binary Fission
Ciruclar DNA, Two DNA polymerases begin at the same point on the circle and move in opposite directions, the complementary strands combine with template to form two new circular strands and then the cell divides.
Conjugation
Method of Genetic Recombination that requires two bacteria, one with a plasmid that codes for a sex pilus and one that does not.
F Plasmid
Plasmid used in conjugation.
Transformation
The process by which bacteria may incorporate DNA from their external environment into their genome. Method of Genetic Recombination in bacteria.
Transduction
Transfer of DNA via a virus. Method of Genetic Recombination.