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22 Cards in this Set

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Give the common name for the first 3 aldehydes:
1. methanal =
2. ethanaal =
3. propanal =
1. formaldehyde
2. acetaldehyde
3. propionaldehyde
In more complicated aldehydes what is the suffix and prefix?
suffix- carbaldehyde
prefix- formyl
What is the common name for dimethylketone aka 2-propanone?
acetone
enols are derived from
Alkene + Alcohol
What is a tautomer?
Aldehyde/ketone isomer which differs in the placement of a proton
The equilibrium of tautomers lies to which side?
Keto side
Where do nucleophiles attack aldehydes?
At the partially positive carbon.
How is a gem diol formed?
A gem diol is formed when an aldehyde or ketone is attacked by a water molecule acting as a nucleophile.
How is a hemiacetal/hemiketal formed?
When ROH is the nucleophile attacking a aldehyde or ketone a hemiacetal/hemiketal is formed.
When CN- is the nucleophile attacking a RCOR or RCOH, what is formed?
cynohydrin
When ammonia is the nucleophile adding to a carbonyl what is formed?
Imines- a compound with a nitrogen double bonded to a carbon
In an aldol condensation an aldehyde acts as...
both a nucleophile (enol form) and a target (keto form)
What is an aldol?
Aldehyde and alcohol
An aldol can lose a H2O to form a carbon-carbon double bond via E1/E2 SN1/SN2
E1
A Wittig reaction ultimately converts...
C=O to C=C
A Ylide acts as a nucleophile and attacks the ___________ of a carbonyl.
carbon
In the first step of the Wittig reaction a phosphonium salt is formed via an E1/E2 Sn1/Sn2 reaction of an alkyl halide with the nucleophile triphenylphosphine.
Sn2
In Step 2 of the Wittig Rxn, the phosphonium salt is deprotonated yielding a _________.
Ylide
In Step 3 of the Wittig Rxn, the ylide attacks the carbonyl giving the intermediate ____________.
Betaine
In Step 4 of the Wittig Rxn, the oxaphosphetane decomposes to yield _________.
An alkene and a triphenylphosphine oxide.
The Wolff Kishner reaction is performed under basic solution. What is involved and what happens to the carbonyl?
H2NNH2.
Both aldehydes and ketones are completely reduced to alkanes.
What does the Clemmensen Reduction involve and what effect does it have on a carbonyl?
Hg(Zn)/HCl
It reduces and aldehyde or ketone completely to an alkane.