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54 Cards in this Set

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moles
moles= grams/atomic or molecular weight
What increases moving from left to right and bottom to top on the periodic table?
Energy of Ionization
Electron Affinity
Electronegativity
What increases moving from right to left and top to bottom on the periodic table?
Atomic Radius
Metallic Character
Pico
10-12
Femto
10-15
Naming ionic compounds: -ic means what? -ous? Non-metal?
ending of cation with greater charge. -ous is for smaller charge. non-metal: -ium.
Acids
Based on anion. if anion ends in -ide, the acid starts with hydro- and ends in -ic: hydrosulfuric acid H(2)S. If oxyacid, -ic means more O and -ous means less.
Binary molecular compounds
begins with lowest left and bottom, add -ide to second element with greek prefix.
1st quantum number
principal quantum number: n. shell.
2nd quantum number
azimuthal quantum number: l. subshell. s,p,d,f
l=n-1
3rd quantum number
magnetic quantum number: m(l). Orbital
-l to +l (L)
4th quantum number
Electron spin quantum number, m(s)
+1/2 or -1/2
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No 2 electrons can have the same four quantum numbers
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Can't know both position and momentum with absolute certainty
Aufbau principle
Each new proton added to creat a new element, a new electron is added as well
Hund's Rule
Electrons will not fill any orbital in the same subshell until all orbitals in that subshell contain at least one electron, and the upaired electrons will have parallel spins
Planck's quantum theory
Energy is quantized
dE=hƒ
Energy of a photon
E=hƒ
Photoelectric Effect
Particle nature of light
KE of emitted electrons only increases when intensity is increased by increasing the frequency of each photon.
Standard Temperature and Pressure
STP: 0 C and 1 atm
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
Gas Standard Molar Volume
At STP one mole of gas will occupy 22.4 L
Partial Pressure of a gas
P(a)=X(a)P(total)
Dalton's Law
P(total)=P(1) + P(2) + P(3)
Ideal gases behave as though they are in a container all by themselves!
Average kinetic energy of fluids
KE(avg)=3/2RT
Graham's Law
v(1)/v(2) = √m(2)/√m(1)
rms velocity
Effusion. Definition and rate
Spreading of a gas from high pressure to very low pressure through a pinhole
effusion rate(1)/effusion rate(2) = √M(2)/√M(1)
Real vs. Ideal Gas.
P and V
V(real)>V(ideal)
P(real)<P(ideal)

PV/RT should be 1 for an ideal gas. + deviation means deviation due to molecular volume is great. less than 1? deviation due to decreased pressure is greater. Deviations tend to occur at over 10 atms or near boiling point
Rate law (generic)
rate(forward)=k(f)[A](α)[B](ß)
a+b is overall reaction order (true if elementary reaction)
Law of Mass Action
K=Products^coefficients/Reactants^coefficients
Reaction Quotient
Q=Products^coefficients/Reactants^coefficients
Predicts direction of reaction
Greater than K, toward reactants, etc.
PV Work
W=PdV
Path function
Work is area under curve of P vs. V graph
1st Law of Thermodynamics
dE=q + w
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Heat cannot be changed completely into work in a cyclical process
Average kinetic energy of a single molecule in any fluid
KE(avg)=3/2kT (k is Boltzmann constant)
Enthalpy. Definition and equation
Enthalpy is a state function that accounts for the extra capacity to do PV work
dH=dU + PdV
No change in pressure: dH=q
Heat of reaction
dH(o)=dH(fo products) - dH(fo reactants)
Hess' Law
The sum of the enthalpy changes for each step is equal to the total enthalpy change regardless of the path chosen.
Entropy. Units?
dS(system) + dS(surroundings)=dS(universe)≥0
State function
Increases with number, volume, and temperature
J/K
3rd Law of Thermodynamics
0 entropy for pure substance at absolute zero in internal equilibrium
Gibb's Free Energy
dG=dH - TdS

constant T
Equilibrium is when G=0
maximum non-PV work available from a reaction
Molarity
M=mol solute/V of solution
mol/L
molality
m=mol solute/kg solvent
mole fraction
X=mol solute/total moles of solute and solvent
mass %
mass solute/total mass * 100
parts per million
mass of solute/total mass of solution * 10^6
Nitrite
NO(2)-
Nitrate
NO(3)-
Sulfate
SO(4)2-
Sulfite
SO(3)2-
Carbonate
CO(3)2-
Bicarbonate
HCO(3)-
Chlorate
ClO(3)-
Raoult's Law
P(vapor)=X(a)P(a if were pure)
This is for non-volatile

Volatile:
P(vapor)=X(a)P(a) + X(b)P(b)
only true if solute and solvent have similar characteristics (ie a ideal solution)