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40 Cards in this Set

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Pauli exclusion principal
no two electrons can have the same 4 quantum #'s
1st quantum number
(n) (integer) = the shell or nrg level of the electron
2nd quantum number
(l) (azimuthal) = subshell (s,p,d,f)
max # e's per shell
2n^2

n=1st quantum #
max # e's per subshell
4l + 2

(2,6,10,14 for s,p,d,f)
3rd quantum number
(msubl) (magnetic) = orbital w/in subshell
max # orbitals per subshell
-l to l

0
-1,0,1
-2,-1,0,1,2
4th quantum number
(msubs) (spin) = +1/2 or -1/2
Hund's rule
will create the maximum number of 1/2 filled orbitals (
paramagnetic
has unpaired electrons
diamagnetic
has all electrons paired
period vs group on p. table
period = horizontal
vs
group = vertical
what is an isolated system?
cannot xchange nrg or matter with surroundings
what is a closed system?
cannot xchange matter, but can xchange nrg with surroundings
what is an open system?
can xchange nrg and matter with surroundings
isothermal process
occurs at constant temperature
isobaric process
occurs at constant pressure
adiabatic process
no heat exchange occurs with surroundings
heat formed/released by a reaction
q = mcΔT
positive ΔH means?
negative ΔH means?
endothermic (+)
exothermic (-)
When is maximum entropy reached?
equilibrium
Gibbs Free Nrg Equation
ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

-ΔG is spontaneous
+ΔG is non-spontaneous
ΔG = 0 at equilibrium
Standard Free Nrg and Keq
ΔG° = -RTlnKeq
Gas Laws
PV/T
Ideal Gas Laws
PV = nRT

best at high temps and low pressures
Partial Pressure of a Gas
P = Ptotal * Mole Fraction
Effusion
??????????????
what is an electrolyte?
a solute whose solution is conductive
molarity
molality
normality
mol solute / L solution
mol solute / kg solvent
equivilants / L solution
dilution
M1 V1 = M2 V2
Ksp vs Ion Product
Ksp are the concentrations of the ions of a saturated solution at equilibrium while the Ion Product is with the initial concentrations on ions

IP>Ksp = supersaturated
IP<Ksp = unsaturated
IP=Ksp = saturated
Brostead Lowry Base
H+ acceptor
Brostead Lowry Acid
H+ donor
Arrhenius Acid
H+ donor
Arrhenius Base
OH- donor
Lewis Acid
E- pair acceptor
Lewis base
E- pair donor
p[anything]
p[anything] = - log [anything]
Henderson Hasselbalch for buffer solns
pH = pKa + log (conj. base/weak acid)

pOH = pKb + log (conj. acid/weak base)
Electrochem cells
galvanic/voltaic give off nrg
cathode (+) anode (-)

electrolytic require nrg
cathode(-) anode (+)