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44 Cards in this Set

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1/11 =
1/12 =
1/11 = 0.091
1/12 = 0.083
1/6 =
1/7 =
1/8 =
1/9 =
1/6 = 0.166
1/7 = 0.143
1/8 = 0.125
1/9 = 0.111
Solubility Rules (5)
1) Most +1 cation with -1 anion salts are soluble in water (Except transition metals)

2) Nitrate (NO3-) salts are mostly water-soluble.

3) Sulfate (SO4 2-) salts w +1 cations are mostly water-soluble.

4) Most salts with -2 and -3 anions are insoluble (except sulfate)

5) Most oxide (O2-) and hydroxide (OH-) anions are only slightly water-soluble. (except NaOH and KOH)
Acetate
C2H3O2-
Bicarbonate
HCO3-
Bisulfite (Hydrogen Sulfite)
HSO3-
Bisulfate (hydrogen sulfate)
HSO4-
Dihydrogen phosphate
H2PO4-
Hypochlorite
ClO-
Chlorite
ClO2-
Chlorate
ClO3-
Perchlorate
ClO4-
Cyanide
CN-
Superoxide
O2-
Nitrite
NO2-
Nitrate
NO3-
Permanganate
MnO4-
Carbonate
CO3 2-
Chromate
CrO4 2-
Dichromate
Cr2O7 2-
Hydrogen phosphate
HPO42-
Oxalate
C2O4 2-
Oxide
O 2-
Peroxide
O2 2-
Sulfite
SO3 2-
Sulfate
SO4 2-
phosphate
PO4 3-
Ammonium
NH4+
Solubility Product
MX (s) <--> M+ (aq) + X- (aq)

MX2 (s) <--> M+ (aq) + 2X- (aq)
MX (s) <--> M+ (aq) + X- (aq)
Ksp = [M+][X-] = (x)(x)

MX2 (s) <--> M+ (aq) + 2X- (aq)
Ksp = [M+][X-]^2 = (x)(2x)^2
Arrheinius Acid
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
Lewis Acid
Arrheinius Acid : Yields H3O+ when added to H2O

Bronsted-Lowry Acid : Proton donor

Lewis Acid : electron pair acceptor
Acid strength (up!)
Ka
pKa
conjugate base strength
Kb
pKb
Acid strength (up!)
Ka (up!)
pKa (down)
conjugate base strength (down)
Kb (down)
pKb (up)
strong acid
Ka?
pKa?

Weak acid
Ka?
pKa?
strong acid
Ka? much larger than 1
pKa? negative number

Weak acid
Ka? between 10^-14 and 1
pKa? between 0 and 14
Haloacids and strength?
HF
HCl
HBr
HI
Descending --> size increases--> bond length increase --> strength decrease --> dissociation increase --> acidity increase
Two factors to count when comparing acidity of oxyacids
1) Excess Oxygen number (# O - # H) which corresponds to # of pi bonds. more resonance withdrawal --> stronger acid

2) Electronegativity of central atom. More electronegative ones have stronger inductive effect, thus stronger acid
For polyprotic acids, the pKa values of 1st and 2nd proton?
pKb?
1st proton has much lower pKa. But know that pKa(1) + pKb(2) =14 and pKa(2) + pKb(2) = 14.
pH of a weak acid?
pH (weak acid) = 1/2 pKa - 1/2 log[HA]

THus know that if [HA] is ~1 M, pH is 1/2 of pKa
pOH of a weak base?
pOH = 1/2 pKb - 1/2 log[A-]
A buffer is normally made of
a weak acid and and its weak conjugate base (both must be weak)
Henderson-Hasselbalch eqauation--- what is it and what does it mean?
Quantifiable verification of pH change in buffer solution.

pH = pKa + log[A-]/[HA]

pH range = pKa +/- 1

As [A-] increases, buffer pH increases as well.
The color change range of an indicator
pKa (indicator) +/- 1
Best approximation scenario for the titration of a weak acid by a strong base
1/2 pKa(HA) + 1/2 pH(titrant base) = pKa(ind) +/- 1
Best approximation scenario for the titration of a weak base by a strong acid
1/2 pKa(HA, conjugate acid) + 1/2 pH(titrant acid) = pKa(ind) +/- 1
ΔG(reaction)=
ΔG(reaction)=-nFε(cell)
ΔG(reaction)=-nFε(cell)=ΔG*+RTlnQ
ε(reaction)=
ε(reaction)=ε(reduction) + ε(oxidation)
ε(reaction)=ε*+RT/nF lnQ