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28 Cards in this Set

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What is an exocrine gland?
a gland that releases enzymes to the external environment through ducts
What is an endocrine gland?
A gland that releases hormones directly into bodily fluids
What is the major difference between the nervous system and the endocrine system?
Endocrine system is slower, less direct, and longer lasting
What are the general effects of the endocrines system?
alter metabolic activities, regulate growth and development, and guide reproduction
What are the three types of hormones?
1. peptide hormones
2. steroid hormones
3. tyrosine derivatives
Most steroid hormones regulate enzymatic activity at what level?
the level of transcription
Which of the following is true for all endocrine hormones?
a. They act through a second messenger system.
b. They bind to a protein receptor.
c. They dissolve in the blood
d. They are derived from a protein precursor.
b. They bind to a protein receptor. Whether at the cell membrane, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus, they all bind to a protein receptor. STeroids and theyroxine require a transport protein to dissolve in the aqueous solution of the blood. Steroids are derived from cholesterol, not protein precursors.
Human Growth Hormone (hGH)
1) Where does it originate?
2) What is its target tissue?
3) What is its function?
1) Anterior Pituitary
2) (Peptide hormone) Stimulates growth in almost all cells of the body
3) Stimulates growth by increasing episodes of mitosis, increasing cell size, increasing the rate of protein synthesis, mobilizing fat stores, increasing the use of fatty acids for energy and decreasing the use of glucose. hGH increases AA transport across the cell membrane, increases translation and transcription, and decreases breakdown of protein and AAs.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
1) Where does it originate?
2) What is its target tissue?
3) What is its function?
1) Anterior Pituitary
2) (Peptide hormone) Stimulates the adrenal cortex
3) Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids via the second messenger system using cAMP. Stimulated by stress.
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
1) Where does it originate?
2) What is its target tissue?
3) What is its function?
1) Anterior Pituitary
2) (peptide hormone) Thyroid
3) Stimulates thyroid to release T3 and T4 via the second messenger system using cAMP. Increases thyroid cell size, number, and rate of secretion of T3 and T4. Concentration of T3 and T4 have negative feedback on TSH (at anterior pituitary and hypothalmus).
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
1) Where does it originate?
2) What is its target tissue?
3) What is its function?
1) Anterior Pituitary
2) Reproductive system
3) Growth of follicles in female; sperm production in male
Leutinizing Hormone (LH)
1) Where does it originate?
2) What is its target tissue?
3) What is its function?
1) anterior pituitary
2) reproductive system
3) Causes ovulation; stimulates estrogen and testosterone secretion
Prolactin
1) Where does it originate?
2) What is its target tissue?
3) What is its function?
1) anterior pituitary
2) (peptide hormone) breasts
3) promotes milk production by the breasts; hypothalmus mainly has a inhibitory effect on prolactin
What hormones are produced by the posterior pituitary?
oxytocin and ADH
Oxytocin
1) Where does it originate?
2) What is its target tissue?
3) What is its function?
1) posterior pituitary
2) peptide hormone acts on uterus and breasts
3) increases uterine contractions during pregnancy and causes milk to be ejected from the breasts (different from prolactin)
ADH
1) Where does it originate?
2) What is its target tissue?
3) What is its function?
1) Posterior pituitary
2) peptide hormone acts on kidney
3) water absorption by the kidney; increases blood pressure (because it increases blood volume)
Where are the adrenal glands located? What hormones do they produce?
1) on top of the kidneys
2) Aldosterone, cortisol, catecholamines
What hormones are produced by the adrenal cortex?
aldosterone, cortisol, and catecholamines
Aldosterone
1) Where is it produced?
2) What does it act on?
3) What is its function?
1) adrenal cortex
2) steroid hormone acts in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct of kidney
3) it increases Na and Cl re absorption and K and H secretion. It creates a net gain of particles in the plasma, which results in an eventual increase in blood pressure (secondary effect)
Cortisol
1) Where is it produced?
2) What does it act on?
3) Function
1) adrenal cortex
2) steroid hormone acting on the liver
3) stimulates the gluconeogenesis in the liver, which increases blood glucose levels
-degrades adipose tissue to fatty acids to be used for cellular energy
-causes a moderate decrease in the use of glucose use by cells
-degradation of nonhepatic proteins
-stress hormone
T/F. Some of the hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex are steroid hormones.
False. All the adrenal cortex only secretes steroid hormones.
What are the two types of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex?
mineral corticoids and glucocorticoids
What effect do coffee and beer have on the body?
-they are both ADH blockers that increase urine volume
-ADH increases the water permeability of the collecting duct in the kidneys, which reduces the amount of urine and concentrates it
-It also increases blood pressure.
-Therefore, coffee and beer increase the amount of urine output and make it less concentrated and can lead to dehydration
Catecholamines
1) Where is it produced?
2) What does it act on?
3) Function?
1) adrenal MEDULLA
2) tyrosine derivatives; most internal organs and skin and skeletal muscle
3) vasoconstrictors of most internal organs and skin; vasodilators of skeletal muscle
-stress hormones
-aka adrenaline or noradrenaline
Calcitonin
1) Where is it produced?
2) What does it act upon?
3) Function
1) thyroid gland
2) peptide hormone-bones
3) slightly decreases blood calcium by decreasing osteoclast activity and number
-however, Ca levels can be effectively controlled in the absence of calcitonin
Insulin
1) where is it produced
2) what type of hormone is it?
3) function?
1) pancreas, beta cells
2) peptide hormone
3) promotes entry of glucose into cells, decreasing glucose blood level
Glucagon
1) Gland that produces it
2) what it acts upon
3) function
1) pancreas, alpha cells
2) liver
3) increases gluconeolysis and gluconeogenesis, increasing glucose blood level
-acts as secondary messenger to cAMP
-in high conc., acts to break down adipose tissue increasing fatty acid level in blood and raising blood glucose levels
PTH
1) gland that produces it
2) what it acts upon
3) function
1) parathyroid gland
2) peptide hormone; bone
3) increases blood calcium by increasing osteocyte calcium absorption and phosphate from bone and stimulates proliferation of osteoclasts.
-increases renal calcium absorption and renal phosphate excretion
-increases calcium and phosphate uptake by the gut by increasing renal production of the steroid DOHCC from vit. D
-regulated by the calcium ion plasma concentration; PTH shrink and grow accordingly