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30 Cards in this Set

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lactic acid
what pyruvate is converted to under anaerobic conditions, uses up 1 NADH and produces water and heat by-products. Reverse process occurs in the liver.
alcoholic fermentation
pyruvate converts to ethanol under anaerobic conditions, uses 1 NADH and produces CO2 as a by-product
digestion of peptides
protein --> stomach (gastrin stimulates the release of HCl and pepsin(ogen))- peptides --> small intestine (enterokinase, aminopeptidase, dipeptidase)- amino acids/dipeptides --> (active transport) bloodstream and epithelial cells --> ammonia/build new proteins --> ammonia enters urea cycle
3 types of hormones
1) amino acid based (catecholamines)- act via 2nd messengers/direct regulation of gene expression
2) peptide (ADH, insulin)- 1st messgeners, act via receptors and 2nd messengers
3) steroid (cholesterol derived, sex hormones)- bind to DNA --> transcription of specific genes
erythropoeitin
secreted by the kidney in response to decreased renal O2 levels --> stimulates bone marrow to produce more RBCs
estrogen
stimulates development of female reproductive structures, thickening of endometrium. Secreted by ovarian follicles and corpus luteum.
progesterone
secreted by the corpus luteum, stimulates development and maintenance of endometrium.
intestinal secretions
maltase, sucrase, lactase, aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, enterokinase (activates trypsinogen), CCK (stimulates release of bile)
vitamins
A, D, E, K = lipid soluble

B, C = water soluble
Bohr Effect
shift of the Hb binding curve to the right due to increased temperatures, H+ concentration, CO2 (HCO3-) concentration-- in systemic tissues
blood clotting mechanism
cut --> thrombopoeitin release + Ca2+ and Vitamin K --> converts prothrombin --> thrombin --> converts fibrinogen --> fibrin --> forms clot
humoral immunity
B lymphocytes, originate in Bone marrow.

1) plasma cells, primary response: produce antibodies /immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE)
2) memory cells: secondary response

Active immunity achieved via antibody production following vaccination.

Passive immunity achieved following natural infection.
point mutation
one base switched for another
frame shift
addition/deletion of one base
transposon
mobile piece of DNA, if inserted can cause mutation
missense
substitute one amino acid for another
nonsense
premature stop codon. Think NO = STOP!
helicase
unwinds dsDNA
SSB proteins
single strand binding proteins, stabilize ssDNA
topoisomerase
prevents "supercoiling of DNA" by breaking and reattaching strands
blood type
codominant system:

1) A has A antigens and anti-B antibodies
2) B has B antigens and anti-A antibodies
3) AB (universal recipient) has A and B antigens, no antibodies
4) O (universal donor) has no antigens but A and B antibodies

Rh+ = has Rh factor: during pregnancy, an Rh- mother can develop anti-Rh antibodies = bad for a 2nd Rh+ baby.

Alleles: IA, IB, i
recombination frequency
=genetic mapping units. The closer two alleles are, the less likely they are to recombine
oligodendrocyte
a type of glial cell that produces myelin in the CNS
Schwann cells
a type of glial cell that produces myelin in the PNS
cell-mediated immunity
T cells, produced in the thymus.

1) cytotoxic T cells- direct attack

2) helper T cells- regulate other T and B cells
interferon
protein produced by cells under viral attack-- diffuse to other cells and prevent spread of virus
lymphatic system
transports excess interstitial fluid (lymph) to keep fluid levels in body constant.

Lymph nodes = swellings along lymph vessels, contain phagocytic cells (leukocytes) that filter lymph and remove/destroy foreign particles
functions of the liver
regulate blood glucose levels (insulin/glucagon), process nitrogenous wastes (amino acids --> hepatic portal vein --> deamination --> ammonia --> urea), detoxification, store iron and Vitamin B12, destroy old RBCs, make bile and other blood proteins, defense, and beta-oxidation of fatty acids to ketones
ADH/vasopressin
produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary, increases water absorption, inhibited by alcohol/caffeine
adrenal cortex
produces aldosterone (increases Na+ absorption and water absorption by osmosis), regulated by renin-angiotensin system.