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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
differential reproduction
individuals with more favorable gene produce more offspriing
puncuated equilibrium
1. short period of evo with long periods of stasis
2. evolution occurs in spurts
Genetic drift
changes in the composition of a gene pool due to change
Gene flow
net gain or loss of a gene pool due to migration
Prezygotic isolation mechanism
1. temporal isolation
2. ecological isolation
3. behavorial isolation
4. reproductive isolation
5. gametic isolation
Postzygotic isolation
1. hybrid inviability
2. hybrid sterility
3. hyrid breakdown
adaptive radiation
1. emergence of a number of lineages from a single ancestral species
2. differences btwn species are those adaptive to a distinct lifestyle or niche
convergent evolution
indpendent development of similar characteristics into 2 or greater lineages not sharing a recent common ancestor
divergent evolution
independent development of dissimilar characteristics in two or more lineages sharing a common ancestry
parallel evolution
process whereby related species eveolve in similar ways for a long period of time in response to analogous environmental selection presssures.
Directional selection
bell curve, follows natural selection
Divergent selection
bell curve goes to the extremes (less "average"), extremes form a new species
stabilizing selection
extremes are selected against
artificial selection
humans control mating
sexual selection
mating is not random
kin selection
animals that live socially can pass on alleles
can't reproduce with ancestors
one species becomes two or more species
allopatric isolation
geographic isolation
sympatric isolation
species give rise to new species in same geographic area
homologous structures
common structures due to ancestry
analogous structures
common structures not due to ancestry
Five assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equation
1. no mutation
2. no natural selection
3. random mating
4. no migration
5. large population
If conditions for HWE are met, how long does it take a population to meet HW equilibrium?
One generation
how well (sucessful) an organism is on passing its alleles onward, more offspring
NS works on both phenotypes and geneotypes
NS only works on phenotypes
NS can only alter alleles, not creat new alleles
Two sources of genetic variation
new alleles (from mutation) & combos of existing alleles
temporal isolation
two species may breed during different seasons or different time of the day.
ecological isolation
two species living in the same territory but not the same habitat
behavorial isolation
not sexually attracted to eachother due to phermones
reproductive isolation
genitalia of two species are incompatible, so interbreeding cannot occur
gametic isolation
intercourse can occur, but fertilization cannot.
hyrbid inviability
genetic incompatibilities
hybrid sterility
hybrid offspring sterile
hybrid breakdown
first-generation hybrids are viable and fertile, but 2nd generation hybrid offspring are inviable and/or infertile