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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
homeostasis is
proc of mak a stable environm
osmoregulation
main of water and sol balance
excretion
remov of metab waste prod
list homeost mech
1. osmoregulat
2. exrecr
3. regulat of bl gluc lev
4. thermoregulat
what are primary homeost organs?
1. kidneys
2. liver
3. large intest
4. skin
kidneys locat?
beind stom and liver
units of kidneys?
nephrons
2 reg of kidney?
cortex, medulla, pelvis
renal artery ---- arterioles------ ???
glomerulus
glomerulus is a ?
network of capillaries
glomerulus converges into?
afferent arteriole
glomer----- effer arteriole----- ???
vsa recta
glomerulus----- effer arteriole---- vasa recta---- enmeshes nephron tubule--- ??
renal vein
afferent arteriole in kidney becomes the?
vasa recta
kidneys
2 capill beds is a ____________ system
portal
nephron is made up of?
bowmans capsule
prox conv tubule
desc limb
loop of henle
ascend limb
dist conv tubule
collect duct
kidney
loop of henle runs thr
medulla
kidney
convol tubules and bowmans capsule are in?
cortex
cortex --- ?? ----- pelvis
medulla
bl plasma flows from glomerulus into the?
bowman's capsule
filtrate is?
the fluid and small solutes entering nephron
filtrate is isotonic w?
bl plasma
glomerulus keeps out?
bl c and albumin
nephron secretes
acids, bases, ions into the filtrate
what subst are reabsorbed in nephr?
glucose
salkts
aa
water
urine is hypertonic to?
blood
walls of prox tubule and desc limb are permeable to?
water
walls of lower ascending limb are permeable only to?
salt
adh makes the walls of collect duct?
permeable to water and urea, but only slightly perm to salt
what parts of nephron are perm to water?
walls of prox tubule and desc limb of loop of henle
what hormone makes the walls of collect duct perm to water and urea?
ADH
osmolarity incre as you go from ?
cortex to medulla
what solutes contr to osmol grad?
urea and salt (NaCl)
in prox convul tubule what are reabsorbed?
gluc, aa, other imp organ molec
Na+ is reabsorbed in prox convul tubule, _________ follow passively
water and cl-
as filtrate flows down desc limb of into renal medulla what flows out?
water
t or f
water flows out of ascend limb of loop of henle
f
in collect dut
water reablsorption is under contr of what hormone?
ADH
what 2 hormones regul water reabsorp?
aldosterone and adh
kidney
aldost stim ?
reabsorp of Na+. this incre water reabsorpt
which hormone stim reabsorpt of Na+ from collect duct and leads to incre in bl press?
aldosterone
addisons disease. what hormone isnt made?
aldosterone
kidney
addisons disease causes?
oversecret of urin with high na+ concentr
drop in bl press
what dis causes overscr of urin with high na+ concentrat?
addisons disease
what regulates aldosterone secret?
renin-angiotensin
ADH IS ALSO CALLED
VASOPRESSIN
T or F
ADH is an antidiuretic
t
ADH acts directly on?
collect duct, increases its permeability to water
what hormone acts direct on collect duct and increases its permeabl to water?
ADH
high solute concentr in blood causes secret of?
ADH
alcohol and carreine inhib?
ADH secret
ADH secret is inhib by what ingested substances?
alcohol and caffeine
alcohol and ____________ inhibit ADH secret
carreine
if ADH is not secreted, you will ?
excrete dilute urin and become dehydration
when fluid leaves collect tubule it exits the kidney thr the ?
ureter
ureter is a duct?
that leads to bladder
urine is stored in ?
bladder
urine exits the bladder thr?
urethra
diabetic. the high level of glucose overwhelms the?
nephons act trans system
what produces urea?
liver
sugars absorb dur digest are deliv to liver via?
hepatic portal vein
liver makes glucose into?
glycogen
gluconeogenesis ?
making glucose from non carbody precurs
t or f
liv can synt gluc from noncarbohydr precursors
t
what is name of process by which liver makes gluc from non carbodydr precursors?
gluconeogenesis
excess aa from sm intest are transp via?
hepatic portal vein
deamination is when?
amino gr is remov from aa
deamination
amino gr is remov from aa and conv into?
ammonia
liver combines ammonia and____________ to form urea
carbon dioxide
liver combines what and what to form urea?
carbon dioxide and ammonia
which organ combines ammonia and carbon dioxide?
liver
urea is made from ?
ammonia and carbon dioxide
liver does what things?
1. maint gluc lev in bl
2. make urea
3. detox of toxins
4. stor of iron and vit b12
5. destr of old bl c
6. synt of bile
7. makes bl proteins
8. def against various antig
9. beta osicat of facids to ketones
10. interconv of carb, fats, aa
liver'
beta oxidizes fatty acids to?
ketones
liver stores?
iron and vit B12
where is bile made?
liver
the proc of making fatty acids to ketones is called?
beta oxidat
large intest absorbs?
water and sodium
large intest does what for homeost?
1. absorbs water and sodium
2. excretes excess salts, calcium, iron, and other salts
excess calcium, iron, water, sodium are secreted by?
large intestine
what is the largest organ of the body?
skin
what are 2 maj layers of skin?
epidermis, dermis
what is beneath the dermis?
hypodermis
epidermis is made of what layers?
stratum basalis
stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum
stratum corneum
what is the deepest layer of epid?
stratum basalis
which layer continuosly prolif?
stratum basalis
what is outermost layer of skin?
stratum corneum
dead sk c change into?
squames of keratin
dermis is what layers?
1. papillary layer
2. reticular layer
dermis
papillary layer is
loose connective tiss
dermis
reticular layer is?
dens connect tiss
the dermis contains?
sweat gl, sense organs, bl vess, bulbs of hair follicles
hypodermis is made of?
loose connect tissue
hypodermis is abund in?
fat c,
it binds outer sk layers to body
what binds outer sk layers to the body?
hypodermis
spec epidermal c called _____________ synth melanin?
melanocytes
skin has recept for what stimuli?
pres and temper
skin excretes?
water, salts
t or f
skin is a thermoregulat organ
t
subcutan fat in ____________ insulates body
hypodermis
____________ incre metabolic rate, and incre heat product
epinephrine
vitiligo is caused by
loss of epidermal melanocytes
what dis causes loss of epidermal melanocytes.
vitiligo
vitiligo is probab a ?
autoimmune disorder
what are alternat mech for regulat body temp?
panting
fur
torpor
hibernation
homeotherms have?
constant body temp
hibernation is a type of?
torpor
cortex
where are the proximal and distal convuluted tubules located?