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56 Cards in this Set

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9 phyla of animals
Porifera
Platyhelminthes
Annelida
Arthropoda
Cnidaria
Chordata
Mollusca
Echinodermata
Nemotoda
Bacteria
1)smallest cells known
2)have cell wall
3)form spores
4)no nuclear membrane
5)may have flagella

bacilli
cocci
spirilla
Ovulation
release of a mature egg from its follicle
Fallopian Tube
one of two tubes in human female through which a mature egg passes after being released from the ovary. Fertillization occurs here
Placenta
organ through which nourishment and waste products are exchanged btwn mather and embryo
4 stages of menstrual cycle
follicle stage
ovulation
luteal stage
menstruation
4 stages cell cycle
G1- growth
S- replication DNA
G2- growth again
Mitosis
3 stages of interphase
G1
S
G2
4 Phases of Mitosis
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telaphase
Mitosis
nuclear division followed by cytoplasmic division identical daughter cells
Meiosis
cell division which produces haploid gametes from diploid cells usually four gametes formed from one diploid cell
Mendel's Law of Segregation
During Meiosis homologous chromosomes seperate and go to different gamete cells
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
Inheritance of alleles of on homologous chromosome pair has no effect on the inheritance of alleles on differnt homologous chromosome pairs
Watson Crick Model of DNA
"double helix"
2 chains nucleotides opposite directions

chains are connected by bonds btwn. sugars and phosphates

btwn chains nitrogen bases are connected by weak H bonds
3 types RNA
messenger
transfer
ribosomal
3 types muscle tissues
striated- attached to bones (voluntary)

smooth-blood vessels + digestive organs
(invol.)

cardiac- heart
(invol.)
6 types connective tissue
bone-skeleton
cartilage-nose, trachea, ear
fibrous-blood vessels
fat-underskin, around organs
blood-w/in blood vessels
4 chambers of heart
righ/left atria and ventricles
Circulation Route in Body
Vena cava
right atrium
right ventricle
ppulmonary artery
lung cappilaries
pulmonary veins
left atrium
left ventricle
aorta
3 cellular components of blood
red blood cells- eruthrocytes
white blood cells-leukocytes
platelets- thrombocytes
Antigen
A foreighn substance that induces an immune response and interacts w/specific antibodies
Antibody
a protein that is produced by lymphocytes in respnse to a foriegn antigen; antibodies bind to antigens and cause agglutination
T-Lymphocyte
type of white blood cell involved with cell mediated immunity and interactions w/b cells; produced in the thymus
B-Lymphocyte
type of white blood cell that is capacble of making and secreting a specific type of antibody once it comes into contact with corresponding antigen
humoral immunity
Principle organs of immune system
lymph nodes
spleen
thymus
bone marrow
Air through respiritory route
nostrils
nasal cavitypharynx
larynx
trachea
bronhi
bronchial tubes
alveoli
Pharynx
muscular tube that is the gateway to the trachea and digestive tract; the throat
Trachea
wind pipe that carries air btwn larynx and bronchi
Larynx
cartilaginous organ btwn the paryn and the trachea
voice box
Kidney
organ that filters blood to remove nitrogenous waste also regulates H2O and solute balance in blood
Renal Artery
Blood Vessel which carries nitrogenous wasted containing blood to the kidney
nephron
functional unit o fkidney; one of many tubules involved in filtration and selective reabsorbtion
Glomerulus
dense network of capillaries enclosed by Bowman's Capsule
Bowman's Capsule
thin walled cup which surrounds the glomerulus and is invovled w/forced filtration
Loop of Heinle
hairpin shaped section of renal tubule in which salt and water are reabsorbed into the blood
7 components of the silmentary canal
mouth
pharynx
esophagus
stomach
small intestine
large intestine
rectum
4 enzyme present in intestinal juice
maltase-digests maltose
lactase-digests lactose
sucrase-digests sucrose
lipase-digests fat
4 enzymes present in pacreastic juice
chymotrypsin-digest protein
trypsin- digest protein
amylase-digests starch
pancreatic lipase-digests fat
3 types nerve tissue
sensory:connects brain and spinal cord w/sensory organs

motor:connects brain and spinal cord with muscles and glands

associative:with in brain and spinal cord
cerebrum
largest part of brain: upper part of skull

thought, memory, sensation, voluntary movement
cerebellum
region of brain responsible for balance and coordination of muscles
medulla oblongata
posterior portion of brain
controls involuntary function such as breathing, heart rate, reflexes
ganglia
mass of cytons (cell bodies) located on sides of backbone; part of the autonomic nervuos system
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord
most association occurs here
9 glands that produce hormones
adreanl
pancreas
parathyroid
thyroid
pineal
pituitary
hypothalamus
thymus
gonads
Gastrin
stomach hormone
stimulates gastric glands to secrete gastric juices
secretin
small intestine hormone
stimulates pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice
thyroxin
thyroid hormone
regulates rate of cell metabolism
adrenalin
(epinephrine)
adrenal medulla hormone
stimulates heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure
cortisone
secreted by adrenal cortex
glucocorticoid hormone
growth hormone
anterior pituitary hormone
promotes growth
prolactin
anterior pituitary hormone
stimulates milk prod. during and after pregnancy
TSH
thyroid stimulating hormone
anterior pituitary hormone
stimulates thyroid glands to produce and release thyroxin
oxytocin
pituitary hormone
stimulates uterine contractions
ADH
antidiuretic hormone
posterior pituitary hormone that regulates the rate of H2O absorbtion in the kidneys and intestines
Amino Acids
building blocks of proteins
valine
arginine
alanine
glycine
lysine
serine