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58 Cards in this Set

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glycolysis
cytosol

both aerobic and anaerobic

makes two 3C pyruvates, 2 net ATP, and 2 NADH

(although 4 total ATP are created, two are used)`
viruses
+-strand RNA

double-stranded RNA viruses, single and double stranded DNA viruses
latent period for viruses:
from infection to lysis
lysogenic cycle is longer than
lytic cycle
Fermentation
completely anaerobic

**includes** the process of glycolysis

pyruvate => ethanol in yeast, lactic acid in humans

the 2 NADH from glycolysis are reconverted into NAD+, to be used as a coenzyme in glycolysis
Kreb's cycle
in the mitochondrial **matrix** (way inside)

each Acetyl CoA (2C) is converted to a 6C oxoloacetate

**turns TWICE for glucose**

- two turns = 2 FADH, 2 ATP, 4 CO2, 6 NADH
each of my cells has 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of
46 chromosomes

this means 92 chromatids
nondisjunction =
if any chromosomes don't split during anaphase I or II

=> one cell has an extra chromosome, while another is missing a chromosome
haploid (n)
one chromosome (X)
diploid (2n)
homologous pairs of chromosomes in the cell
**the ascending loop of Henle:**
actively transports sodium out

- i.e. Na+ is reabsorbed

=> filtrate is mostly water when it reaches the distal tubule
concentration of urine occurs in
the collecting tubule and then the collecting duct
zygote = 1 sperm and 1 egg, =>
morula => embryo => fetus
recombination is the transfer of functional DNA;
reproduction is replication of all DNA in a cell
**there is more Na+ OUTside the cell,
more K+ INSIDE the cell

Na/K Pump: 3 Na+ out, 2 K+ in
forward mutation:
one that changes an organism further
backward mutation:
one that reverts an organism back to original/wild-type form
frameshift =>
nonfunctional protein

very bad
nonsense mutations are very
serious
chromosomal deletion:
portion of chromosomes is lost
aneuploidy:
deletion or duplication of chromosomes due to nondisjunction
polyploidy:
deletion or duplication of entire SETS of chromosomes
translocation:
a mutation;

a segment of DNA is inserted into another chromosome
transposition =
translocation or inversion,

found in both prok's and euk's
transposable elements/transposons
can excise themselves, then move

or copy itself and send its copy out, and stay
allele =
A or a
B-cells and T-cells are
lymphocytes
a single B-cell produces a unique and specific
antibody to match a specific antigen

receptors are also specialized
a B-cell's specialized receptors recognize an antigen =>
a Helper T-cell activates the B-cell => B-cell divides into a plasma cell and a memory cell => the plasma cell makes specific antibodies for the antigen => antibodies, attached, signal a macrophage or eater or killer to get the antigen => the memory cell now immediately recognizes that specific antigen if it ever enters the body again
R plasmid
donates antibiotic resistance via conjugation pilus
endospore
when nutrients are lacking, a gram+ bacterium will reduce itself to this;

very resilient, will lie dormant until environmental conditions are better
Haversian system
encircling central canal of the osteon are the lamellae

compact bone is found on the outside of a bone, spongy on the inside
agonist = prime mover
the antagonist resists the agonist

usually they are on the opposite sides of a bone

- like hamstrings and quads, biceps and triceps
base-pair mutations are
non-frameshift ones
genes close together during cross-over are called
"linked" genes;

more likely to switch information
secondary oocyte becomes
1 ovum after meiosis II
mitosis =>
genetically-identical daughter cells
autosomal dominant condition (2)
- trait can appear in either sex

- does NOT skip a generation
autosomal recessive condition (3)
- can appear in either sex

- can skip generations

- if both parents affected, all kids affected
X-linked recessive condition (2)
- much more common in males

- skips a generation
X-linked dominant (2)
- much more common in females

- affected father => all daughters affected
Y-linked inheritance (2)
all sons affected,

no daughters affected
mitochondrial inheritance
mother passes on disease to all children,

males don't pass it on
adding a noncompetitive inhibitor will definitely change
the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed rxn
**RNA primer attaches to DNA in which diretion?**
from 3' to 5'
how many codons are there for proteins?
64
prokaryotic translation may occur _____ with transcription
simultaneously
retroviruses have single-stranded RNA, as well as
reverse transcriptase
animal viruses enter via
endocytosis
viruses do not carry
ribosomes
bacterial transformation -
DNA is acquired from the medium
transduction =
transfer of DNA via a virus
the lipopolysaccharide layer outside of the cell wall

of gram negative bacteria
protects them against certain antibiotics
exponential growth of bacteria is due to binary fission -
asexual reproduction
***transduction, transformation, and conjugation are NOT reproduction,
but recombination
the haploid state of fungi reproduce
more quickly than the diploid state
like plants, fungi are divided into
divisions
ribosomes are not
membrane-bound