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49 Cards in this Set

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the LV contracts with
the most force
the heart is a large muscle
not attached to bone
systole =
when the ventricles contract
diastole =
the relaxation of the entire heart then the atria contracting
**the vagus nerve innervates the heart **
** ~ parasympathetic nervous system**

slows the rate of heart contractions
- the SA node individually contracts faster, but the vagus makes it slow down

(also increases digestive activity in the intestines)
**Purkinje fibers**
located in the ventricles

the AP is spread by them throughout both ventricles via gap junctions;

allows for a more unified, and stronger, contraction
the sinoatrial node
pacemaker of the heart; contracts regularly

located in the RA
the AP generated by the SA node spreads around both Atria
causing them to contract

and at the same time hits the AV node to contract

- the AV node is slower to contract => a delay that lets the atria finish contracting and squeezing their blood into the ventricles
bundle of His
located all down the WALL SEPARATING the VENTRICLES

connects to the Purkinje fibers
arteries are elastic;
stretch as they fill with blood

arterioles are wrapped by smooth muscle
capillary walls are only one cell thick
only site of gas and nutrient exchange - not across arterioles or venules
veins contain a far greater volume of blood
csA of veins is 4 times bigger than arteries

veins act as a blood reservoir, holding 64% during rest
velocity of blood is greatest when cross-sectional area is smallest
follows Q = Av

the total cross-sectional area of all capillaries > csA of a single aorta or a few arteries
veins have lower pressure
to compensate, they have skeletal pump valves
pulmonary arteries contain the least-oxygenated blood in the body;
pulmonary veins, the most
diaphragm
skeletal muscles inervated by the phrenic nerve
the job of the respiratory system:
deliver oxygen to the blood, expel CO2
the job of the nasal cavity:
warm, moisten, and clean the air

pharynx = throat

trachea = windpipe
epiglottis
prevents food from entering the trachea

trachea splits into two bronchi, which become bronchioles, which lead to alveoli
a problem with MT production might affect
breathing

b/c the cilia of the nasal cavity are made from MT's
from each alveolus, oxygen diffuses into a capillary where it is picked up by RBC's
those same RBC's release CO2, which diffuses into the alveolus and is expelled upon exhalation
in the lungs, the partial pressure of oxygen =
110 mm Hg

pp of CO2 = 40 mm Hg
98% of the oxygen in the blood binds rapidly and reversibly with hemoglobin,
which is inside the erythrocytes

oxygen + hemoglobin = oxyhemoglobin


each of the 4 iron atoms in hemoglobin can bind with an O2 mlcl

release of one O2 => faster release of the others
things that shift the oxygen dissociation curve to the right:
Increase in PCO2, [H+], temperature;

shift to the right indicates a **decrease of hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen**
the oxygen dissociation curve shows
the % of hemoglobin that is bound with oxygen at various partial pressures of oxygen

in the arteries of a normal person, the oxygen saturation is 97%

small fluctuations in oxygen pressure have little effect
oxygen pressure is typically _____ in body tissue
40 mm Hg
carbonic anhydrase
the enzyme that governs bicarbonate formation

CO2 + H2O = HCO3 - + H+


*carbon dioxide mostly comes in the form of bicarbonate*
high concentration of CO2 =>
high concentration of H+ => acidosis

when [CO2] gets too high, breathing increases
carbon monoxide has 200 times greater affinity for hemoglobin than does oxygen
shifts the OXYGEN dissocaitaion curve to the LEFT, as O2 remains avidly bound and is slower to dissociate from hemoglobin
the lymphatic system:
collects excess interstitial fluid in tissue and returns it to the blood

protein and large particles that cannot be taken up by capillaries are removed by the lymph system

also monitors blood for infection

an open system - fluid enters at one end and comes out the other
like veins, lymph vessels have intermittent valves
which makes sure lymph flow only goes one way

flow is propelled by smooth muscle contractions or skeletal muscle squeezing from the outside adjacent
blood is connective tissue
made up of plasma, WBC's, and RBC's

hematocrit = percentage of RBC's = usually 35-50%
albumins
proteins in the blood that transport FA's and steroids

also regulate osmotic pressure
immunoglobins
antibodies
fibrinogen
clotting protein

plasma from which fibrinogen has been removed = serum
erythrocytes (RBC's) are just bags of hemoglobin
they have no organelles, not even a nucleus

=> they don't reproduce or undergo mitosis

**deliver O2, remove CO2**
leukocytes (WBC's)
opposite of RBC's - contain organelles, but don't contain hemoglobin

protect the body from foreign invaders
stem cells in the bone marrow => all different blood cells
erythrocytes lose their nucleus while still in the marrow
platelets
tiny cells without a nucleus

**the coagulation process starts with them**
all cells of the body have the same genetic makeup
only defects in DNA cause hereditary diseases
allele =
one of two or more alternative forms of a gene

occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome
lacteal =
lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine
if protein R phosphorylates another protein,
protein R has used ATP, not the other protein
edema =
increased fluid in body tissues
albumin =
major coagulant;

has nothing to do with the immune system

transports FA's and steroids
King Phillip Came Over
From Great Spain
the transport maximum for a substance in the kidneys is the measure of
how efficiently the substance can be reabsorbed

lower Tm = will pass into urine more than substance with higher Tm (like glucose)
catalysts ("catalytic amount") has nothing to do with
equilibrium
**the formula for the number of possible combinations of N AA's =
N! (N factorial)

e.g. 3! = 3x2x1 = 6