Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is ischemia
Inadequate blood flow that results in tissue damage
What is anoxia
Adequate perfusion(blood flow to tissue) but not enough oxygen.
Carry blood away from heart and are high pressure
Blood vessels that carry blood tword heart at low pressure. Have valves that prevent back flow. Varicose veins are a result of bad valves.
Where does all the exchange of material between blood and tissue occur
The capillaries because the walls of arterioles are too thick.
What is pulmonary circulation?
The flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.(Right ventricle, pulmonary arteries, arterioles, lung capillaries, Venules, veins, pulmonary veins, left atrium)
What is the advantage of having two seperate circulations
Most blood only passes through one set of capillaries before returning to the heart. Exceptions are the portal system(caps in intestine, veins, liver, capillaries)hypothalmic-hyporphysical portal.
What are the atria
Blood collects from veins before getting pumped into venrticles. Low pressure. Right side is where blood from vena cava enters (deoxy). Left side is where oxy blood is pumped from the pulmnary vein.
What are ventricles?
Pump blood at high pressure to the arteries. Right side is where deoxy blood is pumped into the pulmonary artery. Left side is where oxy blood is pumped into the aorta to systemic circulation.
Do all arteries carry oxygenated blood
no the pulmonary artery carries deoxy blood to lungs.
What is the coronary system
the first branch of arteries from the aorta which supplies the heart with blood which passes to the coronary veins to form the cornary sinus(blood pool low pressure) Only deoxy blood that does not go to vena cava(directly to right atrium)
What are the AV valves
Atrialventrical valves that prevent back flow into the low pressure atria. Left side(bicuspid, mitral)Right(tricuspid)
What are the semilunar valves
Valves between the large arteries and the ventricles.
What takes place durring the diastole?
The ventricles relax and blood is able to flow from from the atria which contract in the diastole.
What takes place durring the systole?
Ventricles contract and the AV valves shut. Pressure increases semilunar valves open and blood goes to aorta and pulmonary artery. Pressure decreases semilunar valves close. (Muscle walls of atria are thinner than ventricles)
When does the heart makes sounds and how?
Durring the systole when the valves are closing and opening, AV----Semilunar
What is the average resting heart rate
45-80 beats per minute. Low because stronger hearts squeeze out more blood less beats.
What is the eqaution for cartiac output
Stroke volume(l/beat)X heart rate(beats per minute)
What is the Frank-Starling Mechanism?
If the venus return from the vena cava is increased the heart muscle will be strached and increase the stroke volume.
What are the two ways to increase venus return
In crease total volume of blood.(urinate less) Conraction of large veins. Can be caused by dialation of arterioles
What is the difference between cardiac muscle cells and neurons?
Functional syncytium. muscle cells communicate via gap junctions instead of axon termini. Elextrical synapes instead of chemical
What is the function of the AV node.
Transmission of the action potential is stalled from the atria syncytuum to the ventricles.
What are the consequences for having slow Na+ and Ca2+ channels in heart muscle
Longer refractory period (relax fully), and longer contractions. Caused by the plateau in depolarization
What is the function of the SA node
The sinoatrial node is in the right atrium and causes the initiation of the action potential. Not due to outside excitation.
What is the internodal tract
the pathway from the SA node to the AV node.
What is the AV bundle
Also know as the bundle of his. it is the special conduction pathway from the AV node to the ventricles
How is the heart rate regulated
SA node fires at 120 bpm.THe parasympathetic nervous system inhibits depolarization at the SA node. The vegas nerve synapes in ganglia near the SA node. Ach released and inhibits firing.
What are the two ways in which the sympathetic system effect the heart
Fight or fligt. 1) Direct innervation(release norepinepherine) 2. epinepherine released by adrenal medula binds receptors on cardiac muscle.
What is the underlying principle of hemodynamics
The pressure gradient between veins and arteries depends on blood flow nad resistance(capilaries/arteries)
What causes resistance to blood flow or peripheral resistance
precapilary sphincters or arteriolar smooth muscle.
What is the roll of the sympathetic system in blood pressure
This system releases norepinehperine that cause the arteriolar muscle to contract.
What is blood pressure and how is it measured
it is the systemic arterial pressure and it is measured as systolic/diastolic.
Why is there a diastolic pressure
Because the arteries are like baloons and they squeeze the blood even inbetween heart beats.
What is local autoregulation
certain wastes can directly effect the arteriolar muscle and cause it to relax. Tissue doesnt have enough flow-waste builds up and vasodilation occurs. Very important in coronary artery.
What are the components of the plasma and how much of the blood is composed of it?
55% of blood. Water. salts, buffers, sugars, proteis, lipoproteins, Co2,02 and waste.
What are the components of the formed elements of blood
hematocrit(erythrocytes most dense) leukocytes(white blood cells, platelets)
What is blood serum
everything in the plasma besides proteins involved in clotting
What is the function of erythropoeitin
it stimulates the production of red blood cells in bone marrow
How does the red blood cell get ATP
It lacks organelles and nuclus does not have mitochondria. HAs to rely on glycolysis.
What are the proteins expressed on the surface of erythrocytes
Surface antigens A, B, and i alleles
What are the universal acceptors
AB because they have both antigens because they dont have antibodies to either A or B
Universal donor
Type O because they have no erythrocyte antigens.
monocyte wbc
Leukocyte macrophage exhibits phagocytosis, amoeboid motitility and chemotaxis
Lymphocytes wbc
B-cells mature into plasma cells and produce antibodies.

T-cells kill virus infected cells, tumor cells, and reject tissue graft, control immune response
Granulocytes wbc
neutrophil phagocytose bacteria (ameoboid/chemotaxis)
eosinophil destroy parasites/allergic reaction
basophil store and release histamine. allergic reaction
Cause blood clotting and do not have nucleus. Made from bone marrrow and hemophilia is a defect in them
What are the three types of leukocytes
Monocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes
Explain how blood clots
Platlets aggregate on the damaged blood vessel wall forming a platelet plug. The plasma protein fibrinogen is converted to fibrin by a protein called thrombin. Fibrin holds the platlets together. Circulating blood clot called a thrombus.
How many subunits are there in hemoglobin and how many oxygens can it bind
4 and 4.
What is at the center of the heme prostetic group
a single iron in the 2+ oxidation state.
What type of binding does hemoglobin have and does myoglobin show the same binding?
Cooperative and no.
What factors favor the deoxy hemoglobin state
decreased pH, increased CO2, increased temperature.
What are the three ways in which CO2 is transported through the blood?
73%- C02+H20--H2C03--HCo3-+H+
Catalyzed: carbonic anhydrase

20% transported by being bound to Hb not on active site.

7% just dissolved(more water soluable than 02)
How thick are the cell walls of capillaries and what can pass through them
They are 1 flattened endothelial cell thick and they contain intercellular clefts where nutrients, waste and white blood cells pass.
How do glucose and amino acids reach the cells
They are carried to the liver by the hepatic portal vein from the digestive tract. They are stored in the liver and released as need where they pass through capilary clefts.
How are fats absorbed?
Fats are absorbed from the intestine and packaged into chylomicrons. Through thy lymphatic system(lacteals) bypassing the portal vein. Liver-Blood stream, adipocytes, FFA's enter any cell.
What two types of White blood cells squeeze through the intercellular clefts?
Macrophages and Neutrophils
Does water flow into or out of the capilaries clefts? and for what reasons
Water flows out of the clefts because of the hydrostatic pressure(fluid pressure created by the heart) and the high osmolarity of the tissue.
How does the body solve the problem with water loss at capilary clefts
Plasma osmolarity is increased by increasing the amount of large plasma proteins(Na+ will leak out) such as albumin.
What is the term used for the plasma pressure and what is the cycle for water that leaks out?
oncotic pressure. At the begining of the capilary, hydrostatic pressure is high and water leaks out. ^[Blood]. At end of capilary hydrostatic pressure is low but oncotic pressure is high and water diffuses back into the capillary.
What is edema and how does it result
It is the swelling of the tissue due to water and can result from inflamation where capilary clefts open to allow more white blood cells to enter.
What would happen if the capillaries were made more permeated
Tons of fluid would be lost from the plasma into the tissues and would reduce cardiac output due to low blood volume
Albumin is made in the liver if what can happen due too sever alcoholism
What does the lymphatic system do?
it is a one way flow system which acts as a suction pump to retrieve water, proteins and white blood cells from the tissue?
What is lymph and where does it flow?
lymph is the fluid captured from the lymphatic system.
capillaries-ducts(have smooth muscle), filterd through lymph nodes(tons of white blood cells), merge at thoratic duct empties into vein in neck.Same system chlyomicrons flow to.
What are the three types of immunity
innate, humoral, and cell mediated
What is innate immunity and what are some examples?
General non specific protection against invaders.
(skin, tears/saliva(lysozyme), stomach acid, macrophages, neutrophils, complement system of 20 nonspecific blood proteins
What is innate immunity and what are some examples?
Specific protection by antibody or immunoglobin proteins. Bind antigen. (virul capsid, surface of bacteria)
What are the components of antibodies
2 light chains 2 heavy chains with a hypervariable reagon on the Ag binding site
WHat are the three ways in which antibodys remove antigens
1) binding of antibody can directly prevent it from performing function
2) Binding can induce response from macrophage or neutrophil
3) presence of antibodies on surface can activate compliment system to and cell lysis
How are antibodies produced
they are produced by b cells(lymphocytes). B cells derrived from precursor cells in bone marrow. Recombination of the genes occur and that is what produces the variable region.
What happens when a B cell binds to an antigen
They poliferate and differentiate into plasma cells and memory cells.
What do plasma cells and memory cells do?
Plasma=secrete antibody into the plasma
Memory= remain dormant waiting for the same antigen to appear(years) Clonal selection.
What is the difference between primary and secondary immune responses?
PRimary= first antigen encounter takes weeks to get enough antibody, disease effects felt
Secondary; most symptoms never develop due to presence of memory cells
What is cell mediated immunity?
T cells
What is the role of helper T cells?
Helper T cells activate B cells and Killer T cells. Controller of the whole response. antigen specific. made in bone marrow
What is the role of killer T cells?
Destroy: Virus-infected host cells, Cancer cells, Foreign cells such as cells of a skin graft/blood donor.
What is the role of the thymus in helper t cells production
destroys self specific T cells which would cause an autoimune response.
What is the roll of the MHC-1 complex
Major histocombatibility complex. Random peptides are displayed on every cell surface from inside the cell denotes self proteins.
What is the role of the MHC-2 complex
Only special cells contain it. Antigen presenting cells such as macrophages and B cells. Phagocytosis and chopping up and displaying proteins. This activates helper T cells which activate B cell and T cell proliferation for specificity.
What are the two sites where blood is filtered and immune responses take place
spleen and lymph nodes. Spleen also destroys aged red blood cells