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78 Cards in this Set

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Glycosidic Bonds
Link carbohydrates and alcohols
Phosphodiester Bonds
Links nucleotides in RNA and DNA
Northern Blot
Identify known RNA fragments using gel electrophoresis
Southern Blot
Identify known DNA fragments using gel electrophoresis
Western Blot
Identify specific protein in a mixture of proteins
Electrophoresis
Uses and electrolytic cell (with a positively charged anode and a negatively charged cathode). Phosphate groups of DNA fragments gives it a negatively charge and it is attracted to the positively charged anode
Ribosomes:
# of subunits
Prokaryotes - 30S and 50S - 70S combined
Eukaryotes - 40S and 60S - 80S combined
Start Codon
AUG
Stop Codons
UAG, UGA, UAA
Chiasma
The single point where two chromosomes in Prophase I is joined (can be seen in a light microscope)
Products of Meiosis I
After Telophase I - 2 secondary spermocyte and secondary oocytes (1 polar body and 1 oocyte) is produced. They are haploid with 23 replicated chromosomes (sisters)
Products of Meiosis II
4 Spermocyte and 1 Ovum (and another polar body) is created - each with 1 copy of the haploid
ANAPHASE I or II
1. Primary Nondisjuncton
2. Secondary Nondisjunction
1. One gamete has a complete extra chromosome with the other missing one
2. One gamete has an extra chromatid
(+) Stranded RNA
Proteins can be directly translated from this RNA (is mRNA)
(-) Stranded RNA
complement of mRNA and must be transcribed to (+) RNA
Inclusion Bodies
Found in Prokaryotes - granules of organic or inorganic matter
Glycoproteins
Carbohydrate portions protrude toward outside of cells
Lipoproteins
Lipid anchored proteins - lipid portions embedded in the membrane and protein portions on the surface
Hypertonic to the environment
Aqueous solution of cytosol contains more particles than aqueous solution surrounding them
Hypotonic to the environment
Cytosol contains fewer particles than the environment surrounding them
Penicillin
Attacks amino acid cross links of peptidoglycan
Gram Positive
Thick peptidoglycan - Less stain leaks out (stains purple)
Gram Negative
- Stains red due to thin peptidoglycan
- Outside cell wall it contains a phospholipid bilayer
- This membrane is similar to plasma membrane but contains liposaccharides which can form a protective barrier from antibodies and many antibiotics
Bacterial Flagella
Long hollow rigid helical cylinder made from globular proteins called flagellin and is used for motion
Eukaroytic Flagella
Made from microtubles
Binary Fission
A sexual replication in bacteria similar to eukaryotes
Conjugation
Genetic Recombination
- One of the bacterium must have a plasmid with the gene that codes for sex pilus
- Passage of DNA is always from the cell with conjugative plasmid to one that does not
Plasmids
Small circles of DNA that exists and replicate independently of bacterial chromosome
Episome
A plasmid that can integrate into chromosome
F Plasmid
Fertility Factor or F factor
- Codes for sex pilus
- F+ contains F plasmid
- F- contains F plasmid
- If it is integrated into chromosome at the time of pilus production some or all of the rest of the chromosome may be replicated and transferred
R plasmid
Donates resistance during conjugation to certain antibiotics
Transformation
Uptake of DNA from external environment
Transduction
Sometimes the capsid of a bacteriophage will mistakably encapsulate a DNA fragment which will be transferred to another bacteria
Endospore
Formed by some gram positive bacteria
Division
Plants and Fungi are separated into divisions, not phyla
Septa
Fungal cell wall made of chitin
- more resistant to microbial attack than cellulose
Fungus
- May contain one or more nuclei
- lack centrioles and mitosis takes place entirely in the nucleus (nuclear membrane never breaks)
- Eukaryotic Heterotrophs
Fungal Growth Phase
- Consists of tangled mass (called mycelium) of multiple branched threadlike structures called hyphae
- Haploid life cycle predominates most of the time
- Haploid spores give rise to new mycelia in sexual reproduction
Yeast
- Asexual reproduction occurs by budding (small cell pinches from larger one)
- Unicellular fungus
Peroxisomes
- Vesicles in the cytosol
- Can grow by incorporating lipids and proteins from the cytosol
- unlike lysosomes, which bud from membrane peroxisomes, they self replicate
Cytoskeleton
Network of filaments that anchors some membrane proteins, move components within cells or move cell itself
- Composed of microtubules and microfilaments
Microtubules
- Contain protein tubulin
- 13 of the filaments (tubulin is normally globular but is straightend to form microtubules) lie alongside each other to form a tubule (spiral appearance is due to two types of tubulin used (alpha and beta))
- Forms mitotic spindle, flagellum and cilium
Eukaryotic Flagellum and Cilium
- Major portion is called an axoneme (with 9 pairs of microtubules forming a circle around the 2 lone microtubules) 9+2 arrangement
- eukaryotic flagella undergo whiplike action while prokarytic flagella rotate
MTOC
- Microtubules have a + and - end, the - end attaches to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC)
- the tubules grows away from MTOC at the + end
- The MTOC in animles is centrosome
Microfilaments
Smaller and fomed by polymerized protein actin - produce contracting force in muscles and allows cytoplasmic streaming (amoebalike movement), phagocytosis and microvilli movement
Mitochondrial DNA
- No histones or nucleosomes present - some of the codons in mitochondria differe from codons in the rest of the cell, presenting an exception in universal genetiv code
- is passed to offspring maternally
Fibroblasts
Secretes fibrous proteins like elastin and collagen to form a moleculat network that hold tissue cells in place
Basal Lamina - (Basement Membrane)
A thin sheet of matrix material that separates epithelial cells from support tissue (cells adjacent to the epithelial cells on the inside of the body)
Cell membrane is ______ly charged compared to the cytosol
positively
Depolarization
voltage gated sodium channesl change configuration when the voltage across the membrane is disturbed. specifically they allow Na+ to flow through the membrane for a fraction of a second as they change configuration. as Na+ flows into the cell, the voltage change further, causing more sodium channels to change configuration, allowing still more sodium to flow into the cell in a positive feedback mechanism.
since Na+ concentration moves toward equilibrium and K+ concentration remains higher inside the cell. the membrane potential actually reverses polarity so that it is positive on the inside compared to the outside
Repolarization
voltage gated potassium channels – less sensitive to voltage change so they take longer to open, most of the sodium channesl are closing by this time. now K+ flows of the cell making the inside negative again
hyperpolarization
the potassium channels are so slow to close that for a fraction of a second the inside membrane becomes even more negative than resting potential
Electrical Synapse
Found in cardiac and visceral smooth muscle cell - composed of gap junctions
Chemical Synapse
- Membrane has large number of Ca2+ voltage gated channels
- when an action potential arrives – the channels cause an influx of calcium ions which cause neurotransmitters vesicles to be released into synaptic cleft
- Brownian motion
Brownian motion
random molecules of molecules
Support Cells
- Besides neurons, nervous tissue contains support cells liks schwann cells
- In peripheral nervous system myelin is made by schwann cells
Axons
White matter- Myelinated axons
Gray matter - nonmyelinated axons
- only vertebrates have myelinated axons
Nodes of Raveir
Tiny gap between myelin - action potentials jumps from one node to next and is called saltatory conduction
sensory (afferent) neurons
receive signals from receptor cells that interacts with the environment (transfers signal to the neurons (99% of sensory input is discarded by the brain)) – located dorsally – toward the back of spinal cord
interneurons
Connects one neuron to another (90% of all neurons)
Motor (efferent) neurons
signal to muscle or gland – located ventrally – abdomen side of spinal cord
somatic nervous system
– primarily respond to external environment (sensory and motor functions)
- its motor only innervates muscle
- their cell bodies are located on ventral horns of spinal cord and use acetylcholine to synapse directly on effectors (muscle)
autonomic nervous system
- receive signals from viscera (organs inside)
- motor portion conducts signals to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands (usually involuntary)
Divided into
- sympathetic – originate from neurons in spinal cord
- parasympathetic – orginal from parasympathetic and spinal cord
Nucleus
Ganglion
- A group of cell bodies inside CNS
- a group of cell bodies outside of CNS
All preganglion neurons of ANS and post ganglionic neurons of parasympathetic system – use _________ as a nerotransmiter
Acetyacholine
postganglionic neuron of sympathetic use _____________ and _______________
ephineprine or norephinephrine (adrenaline or noradrenaline)
Cholineric Receptors
- Nicotinic
- Muscarinic
Receptors of acetylcholine
Nicotinic - found on postsynaptic cell between ANS preganglion
Muscarinic - found of effectors of parasympathetic nervous system
Adrenergic
Receptors for epinephrine and norephinephrine
Autonomic pathways are controlled by the ________
Hypothalamus
Central Nervous system
- Spinal Cord, Lower brain and Higher Brain
- Lower Brain - Medulla Pons, hypothalamus, thalamus and cerebellum
- Higher Brain - Cerebrum or cerebral cortex (store memory and thought process)
Involuntary breathing is controlled by ___________-
Medulla Oblogata
Finely controlled muscle movements are controlled by the __________
Cerebellum
Reflex arcs
in order to prevent conflictive contractions by antagonist muscle groups, reflexes will often cause one muscle group to contract while it sends inhibitory signal to the other one
Eye
light first hits the cornea (refractory index of 1.4 (most bending of light happens here))
then light enters anterior cavity and then hits the lens
lens is circled by ciliar muscle which stretches (flatten – increase focal distance) or contract (spherical – focal point closer to the lens) the lens
elasticity of lens declines with age making it difficult to focus on nearby objects
since lens is converging – image on retina is real and inverted
Rods
found in the retina
- pigment of rod cells - rhodopin - derived from vitamin A
- ros sens all photons and wavelength within visible spectrum (390 - 700nm) so it cannot distinguish color
- Light (photons) cause membrane of rod cell to become less permeable to sodium ions and hyperpolarize (which is transduced to a neural action potential)
Cones
- found in the retina
- 3 Types - each for different spectrum of wavelength (distinguish color)
Iris
- Colored Circle
- Portion of the eye that circle opening called pupil - made of circular and radial muscle
- In dark environment, sympathetic nervous system contracts the iris which dilate the pupil and allow more light to enter
- in bright environment, parasympathetic nervous system contracts the circular muscle of the iris, constricting pupil and screening out light
The Ear
outer ear
middle ear – tympanic membrane – eardrum – beginning of the middle ear
3 small bones – malleus, incus and stapes – act as a lever translating the wave to oval window
inner – cochlea – wave travel to center of the spiral – hair cells and organ of corti picks up wave movement in the cochea
semicircular canal – in the inner ear and is responsible for balance – contain fluid and hair cells