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35 Cards in this Set

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What is the cell body of a neuron also called?
Soma
Why is the nerve terminal shaped the way it is?
enlarged and flattened to maximize neurotransmission to the next neuron and ensure proper production of neurotransmitter
What the two main ions relevant to action potentials in neurons? What are their relative concentrations inside/outside the cell at resting potential?
Na and K
outside: high Na, low K
inside: high K, low Na
How do neurons obtain their negative resting potential?
-Na/K ATPase (3Na out/ 2K in), moves against gradient
-membrane has a greater permeability to K+ compared to Na+ (K+ diffuses down its gradient out of the cell)
What causes sodium to move into the cell during depolarization? What is the voltage after depolarization?
-Electric and chemical gradient (inside negative, more sodium outside)
-+35mv
The speed of the action potential depends on what?
-resistance in the neuron
-want a neuron that is thicker and shorter
-myelin is a good insulator, prevents the loss of electrical signals
What do you call a neuron that signals to a gland or muscle?
Effector cell
The release of neurotransmitters is dependent on what substance?
Calcium
How are neurotransmitters removed from the synaptic cleft?
1. enzymes (acetylcholinesterase on acetylcholine)
2. reuptake carriers- recycled into the presynaptic neuron (dopamine or serotonin)
3. diffuse out of the area (nitric oxide)
What are sensory neurons called?
Motor neurons? Neurons only involved in local circuits?
Sensory=afferent neurons
Motor=efferent
Axons bundled together are called what? Cell bodies that are clustered together are called what?
Nerves (sensory, motor, or mixed)
Cell bodies in PNS= ganglia
Cell bodies in CNS=nuclei
What are three major divisions of the brain?
1. forebrain
2. midbrain
3. hindbrain
The forebrain can further be broken down into what?
1. telencephalon (frontal, pareital, occipital, temporal lobes. Also, cerebral cortex)
2. diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus)
What connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain?
corpus collosum
What is the function of the thalamus?
gateway to the brain, recieves sensory information before being relayed to the cortex
What is the function of the midbrain?
-serves as a relay point between more peripheral structures and the forebrain
-passes sensory/visual information to forebrain
-receives motor instruction from forebrain, passes to hindbrain
T/F spinal cord can participate in simple reflex arcs of its own.
T
Describe the white/gray matter in the spinal cord:
Gray matter is deep to the white matter.
-white matter contains axons
-gray matter contains cell bodies
Describe the sensory and motor neuron in the spinal cord:
Sensory neuron- bring info from the periphery; enter on dorsal (back) side of the spinal cord
*cell bodies found at dorsal root ganglion
Motor: exit spinal cord ventrally
How many components does the peripheral nervous system have?
-12 pairs of cranial nerves
-31 pairs of spinal nerves
What is the Somatic nervous system responsible for?
voluntary movement and reflexes
Two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight)
Parasympathetic nervous system (rest and digest)
What is the primary difference between the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system?
autonomic nervous system- two neuron system
somatic nervous system- motor neuron goes directly to the muscle
In the autonomic nervous system, what are the two neurons called?
1. preganglionic neuron- soma in the Central Nervous System, axon travels to peripheral nervous system
2. postganglionic neuron
In the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, what do the neurons use as their neurotransmitters for the pre/postganglionic neuron?
Sympathetic
-preganglionic use acetylcholine (can cause release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla)
-postganglionic use norepinephrine
Parasympathetic
-use acetylcholine for both
Name four types of sensory neurons:
1. interoceptors- internal environment (blood volume, blood pH, partial pressure)
2. propioceptors- motor position
3. exteroceptors- external environment, light, sound, touch, taste, pain, and temperature
4. nociceptors- sense pain, tell brain
What happens in the eye after excitation of the photoreceptors on the cornea?
-photoreceptors send a signal to teh bipolar cells
-relay info to the retinal ganglion cells
-axons of the ganglion cells bundle to form the optic nerve
What causes the blind spot in our eyes?
-displacement of photoreceptors by the optic nerve
-not a problem because of two eyes
What does the outer ear consist of?
auricle and auditory canal
How is sound transformed into electrical signals?
-outer ear collects waves
-channels them to the tympanic membrane
-vibration of tympanic membrane cause ossicles to move back and forth
-ossicles transmit information through the oval window to the fluid-filled inner ear
-this creates fluid waves in the inner ear that depolarize hair cells of the cochlea
Where do the action potentials of the hair cells travel?
-along the auditory nerve to the brain
What is the purpose of the semicircular canals? What is the fluid inside called?
-important for balance
-three per ear, one oriented in each plane
-endolymph
T/F aqueous humor enters venuous circulation?
T, secreted near the iris at the base of the eye. travels to the anterior chamber, where it exits and eventually enters the venous blood.
Where are taste buds located?
Describe what a taste bud looks like?
Where are the receptors located?
-tongue, soft palate, epiglottis
-compromised of 40 epithelial cells, outer surface contains a taste pore (mircovilli/taste hairs protrude)
-receptor for taste on the hairs
What happens when smells enter the nasal cavity?
-bind to receptors in the cilia
-depolarize olfactory receptors
-axons from olfactory receptors join to form olfactory nerves, nerves project directly to the olfactory bulbs in the base of the brain.