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84 Cards in this Set

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Ductus Venosus
- shunt in fetal circulation
- blood away from liver
Foramen Ovale
- Shunt in fetal circulation
- blood away from lungs
ductus arteriosus
- Shunt in fetal circulation
- blood away from lungs
distal tubule
- segment of nephron
Na+ reabsorbed, K+ excreted due to action of Aldosterone
Glomerulus
Plasma -> Bowman's capsule of the nephron
No reabsorption
Proximal tubule
reabsorption of filtered nutrients: amino acids, glucose and minerals
late distal tubule + collecting duct
water reabsorption
lacteals
lymph capillaries - collect fats from small intestine and transport them to circulatory system
enterokinase
enzyme - small intestine
trypsinogen --> active trypsin
trypsin
chymotrypsinogen --> active form (chymotrypsin)
Transcription
mRNA synthesis
nucleus
promoter
region of DNA
- binding of RNA polymerase to initiate transcription
ADH
- antidiuretic hormone
- posterior pituitary gland
- respond to low blood volume or high plasma osmolarity
-restore by increasing water reabsorption in the kidneys
high plasma osmolarity
lots of solute in plamsa
LH and FSH in males
- constant
- stimulate testosterone synthesis and spermatogenesis
LH and FSH in females
cyclic
prior to ovulation: gradual increase. FSH -> follicle development LH -> corpus lutem
After ovulation: drops sharply
diuretic
substance that removes water from the body by promoting urine formation and the loss of salt
RH
- produce anti-RH antibodies only upon second expoure to RH antigen
+ possess RH antigen, does not produce antibodies against Rh-
sarcomere
-contractile unit of muscle fiber
- composed of actin, myosin, troponin and tropomyosin
- myosin binds to actin and sarcomere contracts
geometric isomer
cis, trans
conformational isomer
rotation around a single bond
non-terminal alkenes -> hot, basic, KMnO4
2 carboxylic acid
double slit max
dsin(theta) = n*lamda
lysogenic cycle
integrated in prophage form, and remains dormant
O=C
1750
O-H
> 3000 broad
N-H
> 3000
alkane C-H
< 3000 sharp
alkyne & alkene
> 3000 (sharp)

(right of N-H)
sp3
0-5
sp2
5-10
aldehyde (NMR)
9.5
UV-vis
conjugated system
translation
RNA -> polypeptide
polycistronic
in prokaryotes, single mRHA often contains more than one coding region
transformation
DNA is taken up from the environment and integrated into bacterial genome
transduction
bacterial genes are transfered from 1 bacterial cell to another virus
conjugation
bacterial genes -> another bacteria via temporary connection known as conjugation bridge
retroviruses
reverse transcriptase
lytic
take control of the host cell's genetic machinery => bacterial bursts
gram negative
thin layer of peptidoglycan sandwiched between layers of periplasm and coated with a layer of lipopolysaccharide and protein
cocci
round or spherical bacteria
bacilli
rod-shaped bacteria
spirilla
spiral-shaped bacteria
photoheterotrophs
use light to generate E, obtain C in organic form
chemoheterotrophs
consume organic molecules both as E source and a cource of carbon
gap junction
direct connect between the cytoplasm of one cell and the cytoplasm of a neighboring cell via channels => connexins
gram-positive
thick cell wall composed of peptidoglycan
carbs and protein absorption via
capillaries
fats absorption via
lacteals
glycosylation
addition of sugar groups to proteins
peroxisomes
break down fats into small molecules; they are also used in the liver to detoxify potentially harmful compounds such as alcohols
detox of drugs
smooth ER
tight junction
membranes of neighboring cells are attached, cells are bound together so tightly that no material can pass
total barrier
anchoring junction
- cells subject to mechanical stress
ex) desmosomes, attach epithelial cells in the skin
stronger the base
more likely E2
bulky base
Hofmann - tert-butoxide
tert-butanol
weak base
E1 -> always via Zaitsev
thymus
secrets thymosin
stimulates pre T-cells to grow
inflammatory response
- response to cellular damage
- release histamine, causes blood vessels to dilate resulting in increased blood flow to the site of damage
B cells
- nucleus
- production of antibodies
- humoral response
T cells
cellular response
cytotoxic T cells
kill cells that are infected by a pathogen that the T cell recognizes
Helper T cell
coordinate the immune response of other cells against specific antigen. secrete signaling molecules called lymphokins
suppressor T cells
regulate other T cells and B cells to decrease their activity
epitope
specific part of an antigen
specific immune response
humoral and cellular response
Na+/K+ pump
protein complex, located in cell membrane.
Na+ out
K+ in
against ion concentration, active transport, ATP
corticosteroids
secrets a family of steroids
adosterone and corisol
epinephrine
- hormone
- not stereoids
- secreted when there is stress
intramolecular hydrogen bonding
reduces ability to H-bond with water
less soluble
intermolecular bond
higher melting pt
cerebellum
- hand-eye coordination
- produce balance and unconscious coordinated movement
cerebrum
sense of small (olfaction)
hypothalamus
thermoregulation
B type blood
anti-A antibody
incandescence
light which is emitted due to heat
normality
#3 of equivalent per liter of solution
molality
# of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
gastrin
secreted by the pyloric glands of the stomach, stimulates muscular contractions and secretion of HCl from the gastric glands
secretin
secreted by the duodenum in response to the acidity of chyme, stimulates the pancreas to release pancreatic juice
CCK
secreted into the bloodstrem by the duodenum in response to the presence of chyme in small intestine.
- induces the release of bile stored in the gall bladder and stimulates the secretion of pancreatic enzymes
large intestine
reabsorption of salt and water from forming feces
epithelial cells
play protective roles and are relatively impermeable