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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Four functions of language
tool for getting things done
facilitates thought and creativity
key element in shaping society
links past with present, making civilation possible
Political uses of language
information dissemination
agenda-setting
interpretation and linkage
prejection for the future and the past
action stimulation
strategic uses of political language
argumentation and persuasion
indentifications
reinforcement
inoculation- acknowledge the other side
examples of inoculation
bush talking about war on 9.11. saying knows people dont want war and neither does he but this is why it cant be right
Euphemisms
the substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt
examples of euphemisms for lying
fib, misrepresentation, abnormal aberration, plausible denial
defintion of a frame:
structure of beliefs that individuals use to organize, interpret, and convey info and ideas
internal frames...
frames based on own experiences
external frames...
beliefs that are imposed by policy-makers, activists, and the media
Elements of a frame
context, numbers, messengers, visuals, metaphors, stories, values
an argument is constituted of
claims linked to evidence or good reasons
what is an enthymeme
an argument that draws its premises from generally accepted beliefs
analytic arguments contain
the conclusion
ex: mathematical arguments
factual claim
can be determined whether it is true of false
judgements express...
priorities, values that are different from person to person
circular reasoning can be descibed as
begging the question, the use of part of the conclusion for evidence.
example of circular reasoning
I told you so
exercise is healthy beacuse your body needs it
hasty generalization
the conclusion is based on insufficient evidence
sweeping generalization
making assumptions based on a whole
non sequitur
the establishment of cause and effect
the incorrect assumption that two events that follow each other in time are causally related
false cause...you walked under a ladder and then tripped on an uneven sidewalk
either-or fallacy
assuming the issue only has two sides or two solutions
emotional appeal
appeals to emotions and prejudices of people
false analogy
an extended comparison between two otherwise unlike things.
doesnt address the problem
more people die in their sleep than they do from smoking
bandwagon appeal
"everyone else is doing it"

80% of dentist use this tooth brush
ad hominem
an attack on a person rather than an issue or argument at hand
red herring
something added to an argument to divert the attention from the argument
straw man argument
attacks something by attacking a helpless caricature of it

prayer in schools
slippery slope argument
one thing will lead to another
Tuppen says communicator will receive credibility if they have/are
truthworthiness
expertise
dynamism
co-orientation
charisma
Power leads to...
Attractiveness leads to...
Credibility leads to...
compliance
identification
internalization
Similarity
resemblance between the source and recipient of the message
familiarity
knowledge of the source through repeated or prolonged exposure
likeability
like the source because of appearance, behavior, and other traits
Problem with using celebrities (4)
overshadow product
overexposed reducing credibility
target audience may not respond to the celebrity
celebrity behavior risk factor
ethos is equal to

derived by
character

aristotle
rational/ legal cridibility includes
ability and objectivity
objectivity's two types of sources
willing sources (press releases)

reluctant sources
Pathos is
emotional appeal

attractiveness, relation to the person
Milgram's study involved
unquestioning obedience to orders
milgram's experiment was
shock therapy from teachers to students (actors). seeing if teacher would go to highest shock level. 65% of teachers went to highest level
beliefs are
what we know to be true
attitudes are defined as
predispositions to behave a certain way
way of measuring attitudes (4)
just ask
survey
observe
assosiation
an organzized set of related attitudes
values
which of the following is most difficult to change: beliefs, values, attitudes
values
t/f
attitudes are not the easiest to change
false...easily changed through persuasion
ex situation of attitudes, beliefs, and values
attitude: dont like junk food
belief: expensive, fattenting
values: health conscious
explain stimulus response theory
rewards to reinforce desired attitudes and behaviors
attribution theory
making inferences about the motives of other
balance theory is described as what
people wanting their behaviors to be in harmony with their values.
also goes for people you like and dislike
example of balance theory
rhoda and mary are friends. rhoda is prochoice mary prolife. negative relationship
how to resolve conflict through example
denial: no sexual relation with woman
bolstering: positive side of clinton
differentiation: poltical to private side of clinton
transcendence: clinton is victim for being taken down
change in attitude occurs when we receive __________
justification
dissonance occurs during______
decision making
attitudes are comprised of three components
cognitive, behavioral, and emotional
attitude functions (4)
utilitarian
knowledge function
ego-defensive function
value-expression function
ego-defensive function
promote our own self-esteem
value-expression function
the way we express ourselves with our values
selective exposure
utility, enlightened self-interest, proximity, involvement, consistent and reinforing
selective attention
attention span, novelty, concreteness, size, length
explain social theory
current beliefs serve as internal anchors
three latitudes of social judgment
acceptance, no commitment, and rejection
between acceptable and neutral there may be _________
assimilation
what are the two routes to persuasion
central processing route and peripheral route
people have _________ to process information
limited capacity
people react to persuasive message based on whether they are
motivated to process
able to process - enough room
have pre-existing attitudes towards the message
"audience"
the process of aggregating individuals into a larger and cohesive unit
social proof
deciding what you believe after learning what other people think
what is dial group testing used for.
to measure audience acceptance of specific shows or advertisements
this is used to trigger beliefs that people already have
principle of identification
universal commonplace
widely accepted cultural beliefs
the basic needs filled by interpersonal communication
affection, inclusion, and control
three perspectives of interpersonal communication
humanistic, pragmatic, and social exchange
pragmatic perspectives
goal driven
social exchange
rewards from relationship
types of nonverbal communication include
body communication
facial and eye communication
artifactual communication
spatial communication
tactile comm.
paralanguage
Five sources of power
coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, referent
coercive power
punishments, consequences
reward
something of value in exchange for something someone did for you
legitimate
authority, boss/parent
expert
expertise in situation, know what's best
referent
having lots of respect
leadership communication styles
authoritarian leadership
democratic leadership
laissez-faire leadership
democratic leadership includes
asking people what they think
increase in participation
allows for innovation
laissez-faire leadership
allows people to do their own thing
would work really well in a well motivated group