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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Capsule
a polysaccharide or protein outermost layer, usually rather slimy, present on some bacteria.
Chemotaxis
directed movement of an organism toward (positive) or away from (negative) a chemical gradient.
Cytoplasmic membrane
the permeability barrier of the cell, separating the cytoplasm from the environment
Endospore
a highly heat-resistant, thick-walled, differentiated structure produced by certain gram-positive Bacteria.
Flagellum
a long, thin cellular appendage capable of rotation in prokaryotic cells and responsible for swimming motility
Gas vesicles
gas-filled cytoplasmic structures bounded by protein and conferring buoyancy on cells
Gram-negative
a prokaryotic cell whose cell wall contains small amounts of peptidoglycan, and an outer membrane, containing lipopolysaccharide, lipoprotein, and other complex macromolecules
Gram-positive
a prokaryotic cell whose cell wall consists chiefly of peptidoglycan and lacks the outer membrane of gram-negative cells
Group translocation
an energy-dependent transport process in which the substance transported is chemically modified during the transport process.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
lipid in combination with polysaccharide and protein, which froms the major portion of the outer membrane in gram-negative Bacteria
Magnetosomes
particles of magnetite (Fe3O4) organized into nonunit membrane-enclosed structures in cytoplasm of magnetotactic Bacteria.
Morphology
the shape of a cell--rod, cocus, spirillu, and the like
Outer membrane
a phospholipid and polysaccharide containing unit membrane that lies external to the peptidoglycan layer in cells of gram-negative Bacteria
Peptidoglycan
a polysaccharide composed of alternating repeats of acetylglucosamine and acetylmuramic acid arranged in adjacent layers and cross-linked by short peptides
Periplasm
a gel-like region between the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane and the inner surface of the lipopolysaccharide layer of gram-negative Bacteria
Peritrichous
a pattern of flagellation where flagella are located in many places around the surface of the cell
Phototaxis
movement of an organism toward light
Polar
in reference to flagellation, having flagella emanating from one or both poles of the cell
Poly-B-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)
a common storage material of prokaryotic cells consisting of a polymer of B-hydroxy-butyrate or another B-alkanoic acid or mixtures of B-alkanoic acids
Protoplast
an osmotically protected cell whose cell wall has been removed
Resolution
the ability to distinguish two objects as distinct and separate
S-layer
an outermost cell surface layer composed of protein or glycoprotein present on some Bacteria and Archaea