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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Archaea
phylogenetically related prokaryotes distinct from Bacteria
Bacteria
phylogenetically related prokaryotes distinct from Archaea
Chemolithotroph
an organism obtaining its energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds
Chemoorganotroph
an organism obtaining its energy from the oxidation of organic compounds
Chromosome
a genetic element containing genes essential to cell function
Cytoplasm
cellular contents inside the cytoplasmic membrane, excluding the nucleus (if present)
Domain
the highest level of biological classification
Endosymbiosis
the process by which mitochondria and chloroplasts originated from descendants of Bacteria
Eukarya
the domain of life that includes all eukaryotic cells
Eukaryote
a cell having a membrane-bound nucleus and usually other organelles
Evolution
change in a line of descent over time leading to new species or varieties within a species
Extremophile
an organism that grows optimally under one or more environmental extremes
Genome
the complement of genes in an organism
Morphology
cell shape
Nucleoid
the aggregated mass of DNA that constitutes the chromosome of cells of Bacteria and Archaea
Nucleus
a membrane-enclosed structure that contains the chromosomes in eukaryotic cells
Organelle
a unit membrane-enclosed structure such as a mitochondrion or chloroplast present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
Phototroph
an organism that obtains its energy from light
Phylogeny
the evolutionary relationships between organisms
Plasmid
an extrachromosomal genetic element nonessential for growth
Prokaryote
a cell that lacks a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other organelles
Proteobacteria
a large phylum of Bacteria that includes many of the common gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli
Ribosome
a cytoplasmic particle that functions in protein synthesis