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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an inhibitory co-receptor for lymphocytes?
What substance will turn a T Cell into a T regulatory cell?
What turns a T Cell into a T effector cell?
What sort of self-affinity does a T Reg cell have?
Medium self affinity
What is the main checkpoint for periphreal tolerance in B Cells?
Naive to Mature B Cells
What are four immunopriveldged sites?
1. Brain
2. Eye
3. Testes
4. Uterus
All IL-2 receptors require what to transduce their signal?
A common gamma chain.
IL-2 and GFs can use what particular type of signalling?
Interferons can use what type of signalling in reponse to an infection?
When TNF is causing widespread shock, what type of signalling is that?
What IL is required for maturation of B Cells?
What are the innate cytokines?
IL-1, 6, 12, TNF, INF-A, TNF-B
What are the adaptive cytokines?
IL-2, 4, 5, 6
What are the short term effects of INF-A,B?
1. Increased expression of MHC-1
2. Induces endonucleases and proteases to cleave viral RNA/DNA
What are the effects of INF-G?
1. Increases expression of MHC-II on APCs
2. Activates Macrophages
3. Promotoes B and T proliferation
TNF induces expression of what TLR? What ILs do TNF upregulate?
1. TLR-4
2. IL-1 and they both promote IL-6
What IL induces the upregulation of acute phase proteins?
What is the main IL in the growth of B cells?
What does Haptoglobin do?
Scavenges Free Radicals
What IL causes T Cells to mature into either TH1 or TH2 cells?
What does TH1 do?
It releases cytokines for cell-mediated immunity.
What does TH2 do?
It is involved in more of a humoral immunogenic response.
What cytokine can help put luekemia into remission when injected?
Soluble TNF receptors are used to treat what?
What is used to treat MS?
Serum levels of what protein can be checked to see if someone had a massive mast cell reaction?
Mast Cell Tryptase
Which IL can help in sensitizing IgE for an allergic reaction?
The late phase of an allergic reaction is primarily due to what cytokine?
The Arthus reaction is an example of what type of hypersensitivity?
Type 3
DiGeorger syndrome is a triad of what symptoms?
1. Hypoparathyroidism
2. Heart Malformations
3. Thymic hypoplasia
DiGeorge patients have a deletion on which chromosome?
Chromosome 22
SCID patients lack what anatomically?
Tonsils and lymph nodes
What IL has been found to be defective in patients who cannot develop their T Cells?
How is Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome inheited?
Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disorder typically die of what?
Aspergillus pneumonia
What does properdin do?
Stabilizes the alternative pathway C3 convertase
Deficiencies in the terminal complement pathway, at least C5 through C8 including properdin, have a tendency to present with what?
Neisserial Infections
In testing the complement pathway, if only the alternative pathway is slow, then what is impaired?
Properdin or Factor B
RA nodules in the lungs are referred to as what syndrome?
Caplan's Syndrome
In RA, the leading edge produces what factors?
Inflammatory factors such as IL-1 and TNF
What is the strongest risk factor for RA?
Genetic abnormalities in HLA-DR
Blocking CD20 in people with RA lead to the decline of what?
Circulating B Cells that produce RF
RF is an antibody against what?
The patient's own IgG
Antibodies to what are highly specific to RA?
Citrullinated proteins
CTLA-4 binds to what?
CD80(B7) on B cells
The loss of what receptor that is inhibitory in B Cells is seen in SLE?
What are three extrinsic ways a B Cell can be abnormally activated?
1. It can see a self antigen in an immune complex

2. It can see a self antigen in conjunction with a prosurvival molecule (BLyS)

3. A B Cell can get abnoral activation signals from a T Cell
People who are deficient in what almost always develop SLE?
What is normally released when a macrophage picks up an apoptotic vessel? What happens when the vessel isn't coated with the correct proteins?
1. TGF-B
2. TNF is release
Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs) secrete what?
Type 1 INFs
Which type of T Cell is used in graft rejection?
CD4 T Cells
Will transplants from parent to child fail?
Will transplants from child to parent fail?
Hyperactue Rejection is mediated by what?
What does the Class 1 INF drive in response to an infection?
NK reponse
What part of the MHC II complex does a CD4 T Cell bind to?
Nonpolymorphic region of the β2 domain of the β-chain
What part of the MHC I complex does a CD8 T Cell bind to?
CD8 binds to a nonpolymorphic region of the α3 domain of the heavy chain of MHCI.
What does signal 2 cause in T Cells?
Expression of IL-2 and
If a B Cell is exposed to IL-4 it causes the cell to switch to what isotype?
IgE or IgG1