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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
overlook (v)
1) to fail to see or notice sth
SYN = to miss
e.g. He seems to have overlooked one important fact
= übersehen
= nicht berücksichtigen

2) to see sth wrong or bad but decide to ignore it
SYN = to turn a blind eye to
e.g. We could not afford to overlook such a serious offence
= hinwegsehen über

3) if a building, etc. overlooks a place, you can see that place from the building
e.g. a restaurant overlooking the lake
e.g. Our back yard is overlooked by several houses
= überblicken

4) overlook sb (for sth)
to not consider sb for a job or position, even though they might be suitable
SYN = to pass over
e.g. She’s been overlooked for promotion several times
= übersehen
sour (adj)

1) having a taste like that of a lemon or of fruit that is not ready to eat
e.g. sour apples
e.g. a sour flavour
OPP = sweet
= sauer

2) (especially of milk) having an unpleasant taste or smell because it is not fresh
e.g. to turn / go sour

3) (of people) not cheerful; bad-tempered and unpleasant
e.g. a sour and disillusioned woman
e.g. a sour face
e.g. The meeting ended on a sour note with several people walking out
= mürrisch
= unzufrieden
= bitter
drag sb/sth down (to sth)
to bring sb/sth to a lower social or economic level, a lower standard of behaviour, etc.

e.g. If he fails, he’ll drag us all down with him
e.g. .. which caused global investments in U.S. real estate to turn sour and drag down the global economy
force sb (into sth / into doing sth)
to make sb do sth that they do not want to do

e.g. The President was forced into resigning
e.g. I was forced to take a taxi because the last bus had left
e.g. She forced herself to be polite to them
e.g. He didn’t force me—I wanted to go
e.g. ‘I shouldn’t really have any more.’ ‘Go on—force yourself!’
e.g. the real estate bubble burst because individuals were forced to pay a higher and higher percentage of their income for energy
decouple sth (from sth) (v)

(formal) to end the connection or relationship between two things

= entkoppeln
= abkoppen
= loskoppeln

e.g. Decoupling the relation between risk factors for conduct problems and the receipt of intervention services
e.g. They have completely decoupled the two factors
threshold (n)
1) the floor or ground at the bottom of a doorway, considered as the entrance to a building or room
e.g. She stood hesitating on the threshold
e.g. He stepped across the threshold
= Türschwelle

2) the level at which sth starts to happen or have an effect
e.g. He has a low boredom threshold (= he gets bored easily)
e.g. I have a high pain threshold (= I can suffer a lot of pain before I start to react)
e.g. My earnings are just above the tax threshold (= more than the amount at which you start paying tax)
= Schwelle
= Grenzwert

3) [usually sing.] the point just before a new situation, period of life, etc. begins
e.g. She felt as though she was on the threshold of a new life
mode (n)

1) a particular way of doing sth; a particular type of sth
e.g. a mode of communication
e.g. a mode of behaviour
e.g. environment-friendly modes of transport
e.g. the airplane is not the quitest mode of transportation
= Methode
= Form
= Art
= Verfahren

2) the way in which a piece of equipment is set to perform a particular task
e.g. Switch the camera into the automatic mode
= Modus

3) a particular way of feeling or behaving
e.g. to be in holiday mode
= Laune

4) a particular style or fashion in clothes, art, etc.
e.g. a pop video made by a director who really understands the mode
= Mode

5) (technical) a set of notes in music which form a scale
e.g. major / minor mode

6) (mathematics) the value that appears most frequently in a series of numbers
= Modus
sleigh (adj)

a sledge (= a vehicle that slides over snow), especially one pulled by horses

e.g. a sleigh ride
e.g. a sleigh pulled by eight tiny reindeer (=Renntier)

= (Pferde)Schlitten
reindeer (n)

a large deer with long antlers (= horns shaped like branches), that lives in cold northern regions

= Rentier
shepherd (n) / (v)


a person whose job is to take care of sheep


to guide sb or a group of people somewhere, making sure they go where you want them to go
= hüten
= führen
= leiten
nozzle (n)

a narrow piece that is attached to the end of a pipe or tube to direct the stream of liquid, air or gas passing through
fan (n)

1) a person who admires sb/sth or enjoys watching or listening to sb/sth very much
e.g. a big fan of Pavarotti
e.g. fan mail (= letters from fans to the person they admire)
= Fan

2) a machine with blades that go round to create a current of air
e.g. to switch on the electric fan
e.g. a fan heater
= Ventilator

3) a thing that you hold in your hand and wave to create a current of cool air
= Fächer
kernel (n)

1) the inner part of a nut or seed

2) the central, most important part of an idea or a subject

e.g. the kernel of the idea might have worked out, but...
blade (n)
1) the flat part of a knife, tool or machine, which has a sharp edge or edges for cutting

2) one of the flat parts that turn around in an engine or on a helicopter
e.g. the blades of a propeller
e.g. rotor blades on a helicopter

3) the flat wide part of an oar (= one of the long poles that are used to row a boat; = Ruder) that goes in the water

4) a single flat leaf of grass

5) the flat metal part on the bottom of an ice skate

early on
at an early stage of a situation, relationship, period of time, etc.

e.g. I knew quite early on that I wanted to marry her
e.g. Early on, we didn't have the advanced diagnostics, instrumentation and insight to know what we had done to make it worse instead of better
data gathering (n)
= Datenerfassung

e.g. data-gathering methods
to be in use
e.g. plastics-based materials have been in use for decades
quest (n) / (v)


quest (for sth) (formal or literary)
a long search for sth, especially for some quality such as happiness
e.g. the quest for happiness / knowledge / truth
e.g. He set off in quest of adventure
e.g. manufacturers are facing a serious hurdle (=Hürde, Hindernis) in their quest for new developments
= Streben nach
= Suche
= Frage


quest (for sth) (formal or literary)
to search for sth that is difficult to find
SYN = to seek sth
= suchen
ascribe (v)

1) ascribe sth to sb
to consider or state that a book, etc. was written by a particular person
e.g. This play is usually ascribed to Shakespeare
SYN = to attribute

2) ascribe sth to sb/sth
to consider that sth is caused by a particular thing or person
e.g. He ascribed his failure to bad luck

3) ascribe sth to sb/sth
to consider that sb/sth has or should have a particular quality
e.g. We ascribe great importance to these policies
SYN = to attribute

adjective = ascribable (to sb/sth)

noun = ascription
resilient (adj)

1) able to feel better quickly after sth unpleasant such as shock, injury, etc.
e.g. He’ll get over it—young people are amazingly resilient
= belastbar
= widerstandsfähig
= stabil
= robust

2) (of a substance) returning to its original shape after being bent, stretched, or pressed
= nachgiebig
polymer (n)
(chemistry) a natural or artificial substance consisting of large molecules (= groups of atoms) that are made from combinations of small simple molecules
elastic (n) / (adj)

material made with rubber, that can stretch and then return to its original size
e.g. This skirt needs some new elastic in the waist


1) made with elastic
e.g. an elastic headband

2) able to stretch and return to its original size and shape
e.g. elastic materials

3) that can change or be changed
e.g. Our plans are fairly elastic
to play a decisive role
= eine entscheidende Rolle spielen
artificial (adj)
1) made or produced to copy sth natural; not real
e.g. an artificial limb / flower / sweetener / fertilizer
e.g. artificial lighting / light

2) created by people; not happening naturally
e.g. A job interview is a very artificial situation
e.g. the artificial barriers of race, class and gender

3) not what it appears to be
SYN = fake
e.g. artificial emotion
promising (adj)
showing signs of being good or successful

e.g. He was voted the most promising new actor for his part in the movie

e.g. The weather doesn’t look very promising

e.g. One promising device is called a nanopore: a minute hole that can be used to read information from a single molecule of DNA as it threads through the hole
occur (v)

1) (formal) to happen
e.g. When exactly did the incident occur?
e.g. Something unexpected occurred
= vorfallen
= auftreten
= geschehen
= stattfinden

2) to exist or be found somewhere
e.g. Sugar occurs naturally in fruit
= vorkommen
voltage (n)
electrical force measured in volts

e.g. high / low voltage
one aspect
e.g. One aspect that makes this biological technology difficult, however, is the reliance on the gragile lipid support layer
reliance (n)
reliance (on / upon sb/sth)

the state of needing sb/sth in order to survive, be successful, etc.; the fact of being able to rely on sb/sth

SYN = dependence

e.g. Heavy reliance on one client is risky when you are building up a business

e.g. Such learning methods encourage too great a reliance upon the teacher

e.g. The study programme concentrates more on group work and places less reliance on (= depends less on) lectures

e.g. I wouldn’t place too much reliance on (= trust) these figures

= Vertrauen
fragile (adj)

1) easily broken or damaged
e.g. fragile china (=Porzellan) / glass / bones

2) weak and uncertain; easily destroyed or spoilt
e.g. a fragile alliance / ceasefire / relationship
e.g. The economy remains extremely fragile

3) delicate and often beautiful
e.g. fragile beauty
e.g. The woman’s fragile face broke into a smile

4) not strong and likely to become ill / sick
e.g. Her father is now 86 and in fragile health
e.g. (BrE, informal) I’m feeling a bit fragile after last night (= not well, perhaps because of drinking too much alcohol)
essentially (adv)
when you think about the true, important or basic nature of sb/sth
SYN = basically, fundamentally

e.g. There are three essentially different ways of tackling the problem
e.g. The pattern is essentially the same in all cases
e.g. Essentially, what we are suggesting is that the firm needs to change
e.g. The article was essentially concerned with her relationship with her parents (= it dealt with other things, but this was the most important)

= grundsätzlich
= wesentlich
membrane (n)
1) a thin layer of skin or tissue that connects or covers parts inside the body

2) a very thin layer found in the structure of cells in plants

3) a thin layer of material used to prevent air, liquid, etc. from entering a particular part of sth
e.g. a waterproof membrane
emit (v)

(-tt-) [vn] (formal) to send out sth such as light, heat, sound, gas, etc.

e.g. The metal container began to emit a clicking sound

e.g. Sulphur gases were emitted by the volcano

= aussenden
= ausstossen
= emittieren
to meet certain conditions
e.g. In order to successfully carry out the experiments, certain conditions had to be met
encompass (v)

1) to include a large number or range of things
e.g. The job encompasses a wide range of responsibilities
e.g. The group encompasses all ages
= umfassen
= beinhalten

2) to surround or cover sth completely
= umschliessen
= umgeben
e.g. The fog soon encompassed the whole valley
(technical) (in units of measurement) 10^-15
e.g. a femtosecond
the finding opens the possibility of a new kind of wireless drive for microelectronic circuits
the finding opens the possibility of a new kind of wireless drive for microelectronic circuits

in principle
1) if something can be done in principle, there is no good reason why it should not be done although it has not yet been done and there may be some difficulties
e.g. In principle there is nothing that a human can do that a machine might not be able to do one day

2) in general but not in detail
e.g. They have agreed to the proposal in principle but we still have to negotiate the terms

= grundsätzlich
= prinzipiell
effectively (adv)

1) in a way that produces the intended result or a successful result
e.g. The company must reduce costs to compete effectively
e.g. You dealt with the situation very effectively
OPP = ineffectively
= effektiv
= wirksam

2) used when you are saying what the facts of a situation are
e.g. He was very polite but effectively he was telling me that I had no chance of getting the job
= tatsächlich
= im Grunde
dormant (adj)

not active or growing now but able to become active or to grow in the future
SYN = inactive
e.g. a dormant volcano
e.g. During the winter the seeds lie dormant in the soil
OPP = active

= ruhend
= inaktiv
= schlafend
= untätig
apparent (adj)

1) [not usually before noun] apparent (from sth) (that … ) | apparent (to sb) (that … )
easy to see or understand
SYN = obvious
e.g. It was apparent from her face that she was really upset
e.g. Their devotion was apparent
e.g. It soon became apparent to everyone that he couldn’t sing
e.g. Then, for no apparent reason, the train suddenly stopped
= offensichtlich

2) that seems to be real or true but may not be
SYM = seeming
e.g. My parents were concerned at my apparent lack of enthusiasm for school
= offensichtlich
= anscheinend
cascade (n) / (v)


1) a small waterfall, especially one of several falling down a steep slope with rocks

2) a large amount of water falling or pouring down
e.g. a cascade of rainwater

3) (formal) a large amount of sth hanging down
e.g. Her hair tumbled in a cascade down her back

4) (formal) a large number of things falling or coming quickly at the same time
e.g. He crashed to the ground in a cascade of oil cans


1) to flow downwards in large amounts
e.g. Water cascaded down the mountainside

2) (formal) to fall or hang in large amounts
e.g. Blonde hair cascaded over her shoulders
courier (n)

1) a person or company whose job is to take packages or important papers somewhere
e.g. We sent the documents by courier
= Kurier

2) (BrE) a person who is employed by a travel company to give advice and help to a group of tourists on holiday
= Reiseleiter
mule (n)

1) an animal that has a horse and a donkey as parents, used especially for carrying loads
e.g. He’s as stubborn as a mule
= Maultier

2) (slang) a person who is paid to take drugs illegally from one country to another
= Drogenkurier

3) a slipper (= a soft shoe for wearing indoors) that is open around the heel
= Pantolette
conceal (v)

conceal sb/sth (from sb/sth) (formal)
to hide sb/sth
e.g. The paintings were concealed beneath a thick layer of plaster
e.g. For a long time his death was concealed from her
e.g. Tim could barely conceal his disappointment
e.g. She sat down to conceal the fact that she was trembling
e.g. when legal authorities suspect an individual of being a drug mule (=Drogenkurier), they often turn to radiologists to help quickly detect the presence of cocaine concealed in the body

= verstecken
= verbergen
= verheimlichen
= verschweigen
= geheim halten
= verschleiern
rectum (n)

(anatomy) the end section of the tube where food waste collects before leaving the body through the anus

= Mastdarm
blueberry (n)
a dark blue berry that grows on bushes in N America and can be eaten

= Heidelbeere
= Blaubeere
= Schwarzbeere
bilberry (n)
a small dark blue berry that grows on bushes on hills and in woods in northern Europe and can be eaten. The bush is also called a bilberry

= Heidlebeere
modality (n)
1) (formal) the particular way in which sth exists, is experienced or is done
e.g. They are researching a different modality of treatment for the disease
e.g. treatment modality = Behandlungsmethoden

2) (linguistics) the idea expressed by modals

3) (biology) the kind of senses that the body uses to experience things
e.g. the visual and auditory modalities
shed sth (on / over sb/sth)
to send light over sth; to let light fall somewhere
e.g. The candles shed a soft glow on her face
e.g. A new study sheds light on how a technique that is commonly used for making ...
beyond (prep, adv)


1) on or to the further side of sth
e.g. The road continues beyond the village up into the hills

2) later than a particular time
e.g. It won’t go on beyond midnight
e.g. I know what I’ll be doing for the next three weeks but I haven’t thought beyond that

3) more than sth
e.g. Our success was far beyond what we thought possible
e.g. She’s got nothing beyond her state pension

4) used to say that sth is not possible
e.g. The bicycle was beyond repair (= is too badly damaged to repair)
e.g. The situation is beyond our control

5) too far or too advanced for sb/sth
e.g. The handle was just beyond my reach
e.g. The exercise was beyond the abilities of most of the class

be beyond sb
(informal) to be impossible for sb to imagine, understand or do
e.g. It’s beyond me why she wants to marry Jeff


on the other side; further on
e.g. Snowdon and the mountains beyond were covered in snow
e.g. The immediate future is clear, but it’s hard to tell what lies beyond
e.g. the year 2005 and beyond

be beyond sb
(informal) to be impossible for sb to imagine, understand or do

e.g. It’s beyond me why she wants to marry Jeff
criterion (n)


plural = criteria

a standard or principle by which sth is judged, or with the help of which a decision is made

e.g. The main criterion is value for money
e.g. What criteria are used for assessing a student’s ability?
e.g. They apply exergy as a criterion of analysis which is a ...
arise (v)

1) (rather formal) (especially of a problem or a difficult situation) to happen; to start to exist
SYN = to occur
e.g. A new crisis has arisen
e.g. We keep them informed of any changes as they arise
e.g. Children should be disciplined when the need arises (= when it is necessary)

2) arise (out of / from sth) (rather formal) to happen as a result of a particular situation
e.g. injuries arising out of a road accident
e.g. Emotional or mental problems can arise from a physical cause
e.g. Are there any matters arising from the minutes of the last meeting?

3) (formal) to begin to exist or develop
e.g. Several new industries arose in the town

4) (old use or literary) to get out of bed; to stand up
e.g. He arose at dawn

5) (old use) to come together to protest about sth or to fight for sth
e.g. (old use) to come together to protest about sth or to fight for sth

6) (literary) (of a mountain, a tall building, etc.) to become visible gradually as you move towards it
ripe (adj)

1) (of fruit or crops) fully grown and ready to be eaten
OPP = unripe
= reif

2) (of cheese or wine) having a flavour that has fully developed
SYN = mature

3) (of a smell) strong and unpleasant

4) ripe (for sth)
ready or suitable for sth to happen
e.g. This land is ripe for development
e.g. The conditions were ripe for social change
e.g. Reforms were promised when the time was ripe
ripeness (n)
= Reife

ripe (adj) = reif
document (n) / (v)

1) an official paper or book that gives information about sth, or that can be used as evidence or proof of sth
e.g. legal documents
e.g. travel documents

2) a computer file that contains text that has a name that identifies it
e.g. Save the document before closing


1) to record the details of sth
e.g. Causes of the disease have been well documented
= dokumentieren

2) to prove or support sth with documents
e.g. documented evidence
= belegen
immerse (v)

1) immerse sb/sth (in sth)
to put sb/sth into a liquid so that they or it are completely covered

2) immerse yourself / sb in sth
to become or make sb completely involved in sth
e.g. She immersed herself in her work
e.g. Clare and Phil were immersed in conversation in the corner
cavity (n)
1) a hole or empty space inside sth solid
e.g. the abdominal cavity

2) a hole in a tooth
compress (v)
1) compress (sth) (into sth)
to press or squeeze sth together or into a smaller space; to be pressed or squeezed in this way
e.g. compressed air / gas
e.g. Her lips compressed into a thin line
= zusammendrücken
= zusammenpressen

2) compress sth (into sth)
to reduce sth and fit it into a smaller space or amount of time
SYN = to condense
e.g. The main arguments were compressed into one chapter
= zusammenfassen
= kurz fassen

3) (computing) to make computer files, etc. smaller so that they use less space on a disk, etc.
OPP = to decompress
= komprimieren
tease (v)
1) to laugh at sb and make jokes about them, either in a friendly way or in order to annoy or embarrass them
e.g. Don’t get upset—I was only teasing
e.g. I used to get teased about my name

2) to annoy an animal, especially by touching it, pulling its tail, etc.

3) (disapproving) to make sb sexually excited, especially when you do not intend to have sex with them

4) to pull sth gently apart into separate pieces
e.g. to tease wool into strands
exert (v)

1) to use power or influence to affect sb/sth
e.g. He exerted all his authority to make them accept the plan
e.g. The moon exerts a force on the earth that causes the tides
= ausüben
= anwenden

2) exert yourself to make a big physical or mental effort
e.g. In order to be successful he would have to exert himself
= anstrengen
= bemühen
interface (n) / (v)

1) (computing) the way a computer program presents information to a user or receives information from a user, in particular the layout of the screen and the menus
e.g. the user interface

2) (computing) an electrical circuit, connection or program that joins one device or system to another
e.g. the interface between computer and printer

3) interface (between A and B)
the point where two subjects, systems, etc. meet and affect each other
e.g. the interface between manufacturing and sales
= Verbindung
= Schnittstelle


interface (sth) (with sth) | interface A and B (computing)
to be connected with sth using an interface; to connect sth in this way
e.g. The new system interfaces with existing telephone equipment
retrieve (v)
1) retrieve sth (from sb/sth) (formal)
to bring or get sth back, especially from a place where it should not be
SYN = to recover
e.g. She bent (to bend = beugen) to retrieve her comb from the floor
e.g. The police have managed to retrieve some of the stolen money

2) (computing) to find and get back data or information that has been stored in the memory of a computer
e.g. to retrieve information from the database
e.g. The program allows you to retrieve items quickly by searching under a keyword

3) to make a bad situation better; to get back sth that was lost
e.g. You can only retrieve the situation by apologizing
absorption (n)
1) the process of a liquid, gas or other substance being taken in
e.g. Vitamin D is necessary to aid the absorption of calcium from food

2) the process of a smaller group, country, etc. becoming part of a larger group or country
e.g. the absorption of immigrants into the host country

3) absorption (in sth)
the fact of sb being very interested in sth so that it takes all their attention
e.g. His work suffered because of his total absorption in sport

= Aufnahme
= Integration
= Eingliederung
= Einnahme
semiconductor (n)
1) a solid substance that conducts electricity in particular conditions, better than insulators but not as well as conductors

2) a device containing a semiconductor used in electronics

= Halbleiter
excel (v) (-ll-)

1) ~ (in / at sth / at doing sth)
to be very good at doing sth
e.g. She has always excelled in foreign languages
e.g. The team excels at turning defence into attack
e.g. As a child he excelled at music and art

2) ~ yourself (BrE)
to do extremely well and even better than you usually do
e.g. Rick’s cooking was always good but this time he really excelled himself
cosmology (n)
the scientific study of the universe and its origin and development
clump (n) / (v)

1) a small group of things or people very close together, especially trees or plants; a bunch of sth such as grass or hair
e.g. a clump of trees / bushes

2) the sound made by sb putting their feet down very heavily


1) (especially BrE) to put your feet down noisily and heavily as you walk
e.g. The children clumped down the stairs
= stampfen

2) clump (together) | clump A and B (together)
to come together or be brought together to form a tight group
e.g. Galaxies tend to clump together in clusters
bend (v)
1) (especially of sb’s body or head) to lean, or make sth lean, in a particular direction
e.g. He bent and kissed her
e.g. fields of poppies bending in the wind
e.g. His dark head bent over her

2) if you bend your arm, leg, etc. or if it bends, you move it so that it is no longer straight
e.g. Bend your knees, keeping your back straight
e.g. Lie flat and let your knees bend

3) to force sth that was straight into an angle or a curve
e.g. Mark the pipe where you want to bend it
e.g. The knives were bent out of shape
e.g. He bent the wire into the shape of a square

4) to change direction to form a curve or an angle; to make sth change direction in this way
e.g. The road bent sharply to the right
e.g. Glass and water both bend light
magnify (v)
1) to make sth look bigger than it really is, for example by using a lens or microscope
SYN = to enlarge
e.g. bacteria magnified to 1 000 times their actual size
e.g. an image magnified by a factor of 4
e.g. The result is a magnified and skewed image of the galaxy
= vergrössern

2) to make sth bigger, louder or stronger
e.g. The sound was magnified by the high roof
e.g. The dry summer has magnified the problem of water shortages
= vergrössern
= verstärken

3) to make sth seem more important or serious than it really is
SYN = to exaggerate
= übertreiben
= aufbauschen
warp (v)
1) to become, or make sth become, twisted or bent out of its natural shape, for example because it has become too hot, too damp, etc.
e.g. The window frames had begun to warp

2) to influence sb so that they begin to behave in an unacceptable or shocking way
e.g. His judgement was warped by prejudice
subtle (adj)

1) (often approving) not very noticeable or obvious
e.g. ubtle colours / flavours / smells, etc.
e.g. There are subtle differences between the two versions
= unaufdringlich
= subtil

2) (of a person or their behaviour) behaving in a clever way, and using indirect methods, in order to achieve sth
e.g. I decided to try a more subtle approach
= ausgetüfelt
= klug, schlau
= geschickt

3) organized in a clever way
e.g. a subtle plan
e.g. a subtle use of lighting in the play
= schlau
= durchdacht

4) good at noticing and understanding things
e.g. The job required a subtle mind
= scharfsinnig
dark matter
= Dunkelmaterie
to tackle a question
e.g. A promising method for tackling these questions
fuzzy (adj)
1) covered with short soft fine hair or fur (=Pelz)
SYN = downy

2) (of hair) in a mass of tight curls

3) not clear in shape or sound
SYN = blurred
e.g. a fuzzy image
e.g. the soundtrack is fuzzy in places

4) confused and not expressed clearly
e.g. fuzzy ideas / thinking
multidisciplinary (adj)

involving several different subjects of study

e.g. a multidisciplinary course
e.g. a multidisciplinary approach to the problem