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67 Cards in this Set

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Takes up space and has mass. At the smalles levels of organization-atoms and compounds-matter is not alive. At progressively larger levels of organization-cells, individuals of a species, populations, and communities-matter is contained in living organisms. At the largest scale of organization on the planet-ecosystems-matter is both living and nonliving. Some extend beyond the planet-solar systems, galaxies, etc.
the smalles unit of elements. Listed on the periodic table.
atoms or combinations of atoms that demonstrate an unbalanced electrical charge.
negatively charged ion, more electrons than protons.
positively charged ioin, more protons than electrons.
Monoatomic Ions
involve only one atom.
Polyatomic Ions
Involve more than one atom.
combinations of atoms held together by ionic or covalent bonds.
Ionic Compounds
formed when a negatively charged nonmetal combines with an ionic attraction to a positively charged metal.
Ex. of an Ionic Compound
Calcium chloride
compounds of nonmentals covalently bound together.
Polar Molecule
contains a separation of electrical charge within the molecule that helps it to be attracted to ions or other polar molecules.
a substance that creates a hydrogen ion when put in water.
a substance that creates a hydrogen ion when put in water.
depicts the concentration of protons or hydroxide ions in solution
pH below 7
pH above 7
pH of 7.0
Matter exists on Earth
solid, liquid, or gas
fundamental unit of living material.
contains the blueprints of cell function encoded by the sequence of base pairs in the DNA of chromosomes.
DNA Code
translated into an RNA code.
sequence of base pairs.
sperm and egg cells undergo this, which takes a cell with two copies of each gene (for humans, 46 chromosomes in all) and creates four cells, each with one coy of each gene (23 chromosomes in all for humans).
cell division is accomplished after fertilization through this. It duplicates a single cell with two copies of each gene to form a second cellw ith identical genetic material.
Cancerous Cell
mitosis is uncontrolled and rampant cell growth creates a tumor or prolific cells.
Cell Processes
require energy.
convert solar energy, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose and oxygen gas.
Mitochondris(all cells)
convert glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water in a process that also manufactures adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
ATP produced is used as a currency for energy use throughout the cell.
groups of cells that come together for like function.
Organ Systems
groups of tissues that come together to perform a specific function. Ex. a nerve cell->neural tissue->nervous system.
group of organisms with similar enough genetic makeup (and consequently similar tissue and organ structure) to be able to reproduce and produce fertile offspring.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
an interbreeding group of organisms of the same species that lives in the same general area at the same time.
a group of interdependent populations whose niches overlap in some way-usually by geographical location.
composed of biological communities and their physical surroundings.
Ecosystem Abiotic Factors
nonliving; pH, temperature, sunlight, moisture, and nutrients.
Ecosystem Biotic Factors
living; predators, prey, and wastes.
Ecosystem Size
can be as large as a continent (Ex. Antarctica) or as small as the inside of a human mouth.
major earth ecosystems, can be separated into either terrestrial ecosystems or aquatic ecosystems.
Aquatic Ecosystems
can be further divided into marine (salt water) ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems.
Chemical Reactions & Ex.
changes in the arrangement of atoms and molecules. Reactants are turned into products. Ex. the combustion of coal forms carbon dioxide.
Law of Conservation of Mass
matter cannot be created nor destroyed, in can only change form.
Common chemical reactions
acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, and precipitation reactions.
Acid-base Reactions & Ex.
Involve the transfer of a proton, such as the addition of a proton to the hydroxide ion to form water.
Oxidation-reduction Reactions & Ex.
transfer of electrons, most apparent when either the hydrogen atom or the oxygen atom is added to an element. Ex. Carbon is oxidized when it undergoes combustion.
Precipitation Reactions & Ex.
involve the combination of two ions in the aqueous phase to form an insoluble solid. Ex. in the marine environment is the use of soluble calcium ions and carbonate ions to build a home for snails and diatoms.
established between reactants and products once a chemical reaction.
Nutrient Cycles
Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphate, and Sulfur
Water Cycle
hydrologic, characterized by changes in physical state
First Law of Thermodynamics & Ex.
energy is neither created nor destroyed, it can only change forms. Ex. human societies convert chemical energy into electrical energy in a coal-fired power generation plant. The amount of electrical energy obtained is limited by the amount of chemical energy stored within the coal.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
transfers of energy decrease the amount of total useful energy.
the amount of useful energy lost per amount of matter. The energy lost through entropy disperses as heat and becomes more scattererd, or disordered.
involves the movement of warmed mass from one place to another.
involves one warm mass bumping up against another mass, and thereby imparting some of its energy to it by the collision.
the amount of energy that is useful from one step to the next. Usually expressed as a percent.
Efficiency- coal-fire power plant
Coal-fired power plant derives an amount of electrical energy that is 38% efficient. The process of obtaining electrical energy from coal is 38% efficient. The rest of the energy has been lost to heat and accounts for the necessary increase in entropy.
Efficiency- a chicken
is 33% efficient in converting chemical energy stored as grain into chemical energy stored as egg protein.
Efficiency- beef cattle
only about 7% efficient.
Efficiency- human
in metabolizing glucose is about 40%.
the amount of biomass that is produced by a community.
Primary Productivity
the amount of biomass prodced by photosyntheic organisms.
Secondary Productivity
the amount of biomass produced by organisms that eat photosynthetic organisms.
Food Chains
sequences of organisms that begin with a primary producer and trace the movement of biomass through a series of predator/prey relationships.
Food Webs
interconnecting series of food chains.
Trophic Level
each step along a food chain. In most cases, living organisms are able to convert about 10% of ingested biomass into biomass that is available for the next trophic level.