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58 Cards in this Set

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Cervical changes and uterine contractions occurring between 20 and 37 weeks of pregnancy
preterm labor
Any birth that occurs before the completion of 37 weeks of pregnancy
preterm birth
weight at the time of birth of 2500g or less
low birth weight (LBW)
Glycoproteins found in plasma and produced druing fetal life; their reappearance in the cervical canal between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation could predict preterm labor.
fetal fibronectins
form of estrogen produced by the fetus that is present in plasma at 9 weeks of gestation; levels have been shown to increase before preterm birth
salivary estriol
Rupture of the amniotic sac and leakage of amniotic fluid beginning at least 1 hour before the onset of labor at any gestational age
premature rupture of membranes (PROM)
Rupture of the amniotic sac and leakage of fluid before 37 weeks of gestation with infection often preceding this rupture but the etiology remains unknown .
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM)
It (PPROM) can lead to the complications of ___________ and __________, both of which can lead to cord compression
prolapse
oligohydramnios
An intraamniotic infection of the chioion and amnion that is potentially life threatening for the fetus and the woman
chorioamninitis
long, difficult, of abnormal labor caused by various conditions associated with the 5 factors affecting labor
dystocia
abnormal uterine contractions that prevent the normal progress of cervical dilation and effacement (primary powers), or descent (secondary powers)
Dysfunctional labor
Abnormal uterine activity often experienced by an anxious first-time mother who is having painful and frequent contractions that are ineffective in causing cervical dilation and effacement to progress
Hypertonic uterine dysfunction or primary dysfunctional labor
Abnormal uterine activity that usually occurs when a woman initially makes normal progress into the active phase of labor, then uterine contractions become weak and inefficient or stop altogether.
Hypotonic uterine dysfunction or secondary uterine inertia
Abnormal labor caused by contratures of the pelvic diameters that reduce the capacity of the bony pelvis, including the inlet, mid-pelvis, outlet, or any combination of these planes
Pelvic dystocia
Abnormal labor caused by obstruction of the birth passage by an anatomic abnormality other than that involving the bony pelvis; the obstruction may result from placenta previa, leiomyomas (uterine fibroid tumors), ovarian tumors, or a full bladder or rectum
soft tissue dystocia
Abnormal labor caused by fetal anomalies, excessive fetal size, malpresentation, malposition, or multifetal pregnancy
fetal dystocia
Abnormal labor caused by excessive fetal size
Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) or fetopelvic disproportion (FPD)
the most common fetal malposition
Occipitoposterior
the most common form of malpresentation
Breech
gestation of twin, triplets, quadruplets, or more infants.
multifetal pregnancy
Labor pattern defined as a latent phase that exceeds 20 hours in nulliparas and exceeds 14 hours in multiparas
Prolonged latent phase
Labor pattern defined as an active phase during which cervical dilation occurs at a rate of less than 1.2 cm/hr in nulliparas and less than 1.5 cm/hr in multiparas
protracted active phase
Labor pattern defined as no progress in dilation for 2 hours or more in both nulliparas and multiparas
secondary arrest
Labor pattern during which fetal progress through the birth canal occurs at a rate of less than 1 cm/hr in nulliparas and less than 2cm/hr in multiparas
arrest of descent
Labor pattern defined as no change in fetal progress through the birth canal during the deceleration phase and second stage of labor
failure of descent
Labor pattern that last less than 3 hours from te onset of contractions to the time of irth from the onset of contractions to the time of birth, often resulting from hypertonic uterine contractions that are tetanic in intensity
precipitous labor
Attempt to turn the fetus from a breech or shoulder presentation to a vertex presentation for birth by exerting gentle, constant pressure on the abdomen
external cephalic version (ECV)
Observance of a woman and her fetus for a reasonable period of spontaneous active labor to assess the safety of a vaginal birth for both
Trial of labor
chemical or mechanical initiation of uterine contractions before their spontaneous onset for the purpose of bringing about the birth
induction of labor
Rating system used to evaluate the inducibility of the cervix. The 5 characteristics assessed are:
bishop score; dilation (cm), effacement (%), station (cm), cervical consistency, cervical position
artificial rupture of the membranes often used to induce labor when the cervix is ripe or to augment labor if the progress begins to slow
Amniotomy
stimulation of uterine contractions after labor has started spontaneously but progresses us unsatisfactory
Augmentation of labor
Common methods of augmentation of labor include _________ infusion, ___________, and ______________ stimulation.
oxytocin
amniotomy
nipple
12 or more uterine contractions in 20 minutes without alteration in the fetal heart rate or pattern.
tachysystole
12 or more uterine contractions in 20 minutes with nonreassuring changes in the fetal heart rate and pattern
uterine hyperstimulation
birth method in which an instrument with two curved blades is used to assist the birth of the fetal head
forceps-assisted
birth method involving the attachment of a vacuum cup to the fetal head, using negative pressure.
vacuum assisted birth or vacuum extraction
birth of the fetus through a transabdominal incision of the uterus
cesarean birth
pregnancy that extends beyond the end of week 42 of gestation
postterm or postdate
Uncommon obstetric emergency in which the head of the fetus is born but the anterior shoulder can not pass under the pubic arch
shoulder dystocia
two major causes of shoulder dystoci are ________ or maternal __________.
1. fetopelvic disproportion related to excessive fetal size (macrosomia)
2. pelvic abnormalities
Obstetric emergency in which the umbilical cord lies below the presenting part of the fetus; it may be occult (hidden) or more commonly frank (visible)
Prolapse of umbilical cord
Obstetric emergency in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, and other debris enter the maternal circulation triggering a rapid, complex series of pathophysiologic events that lead to life threatening maternal symptoms including acute _________ followed by severe __________.
amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) or anaphylatoid syndrome or pregnancy,
dyspnea
hypotension
Beta2-adrengeric receptor agonist, often administered intravenously, that is the only drug approved by the FDA for the purpose of suppressing uterine contractions
ritodrine (yutopar)
An antenatal glucocorticoid used to accelerate fetal lung maturity when there is risk for preterm birth
betamethasone
Beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist often administered subcutaneously using a syringe or pump; it inhibits uterine activity and causes bronchodilation.
terbutaline (brethine)
a calcium channel blocker that relaxes smooth muscles including those of the contracting uterus; maternal hypotension is a major concern
nifedipine (procardia)
Classification of drugs used to suppress uterine activity
tocolytic
a central nervous system (CNS) depressant used during preterm labor for its ability to relax smooth muscles including the uterus; it is administered intravenously
magnesium sulfate
A prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor that relaxes uterine smooth muscle; it is administered orally or rectally.
indomethacin
Tcolytic medication administered subcutaneously to suppress uterine tachysystole.
terbutaline (brethine)
classification of medications that can be used to ripen the cervix, stimulate uterine contractions, or both
prostaglandin
cervical ripening agent in the form of a vaginal insert that is placed in the posterior fornix of the vagina
dinoprostone (cervidil)
cervical ripening agent in the form of a gel that is inserted into the cervical canal just below the internal os or into the posterior fornix
dinoprostone (Prepidil)
Pituitary hormone used to stimulate uterine contractions in the augmentation or induction of labor
oxytocin (Pitocin)
Natural cervical dilator made from seaweed
laminaria tent
Synthetic dilator containing magnesium sulfate
Lamisil
Cervical ripening agent, used in the form of a tablet, that is most commonly inserted intravaginally into the posterior fornix
misoprostol (Cytotec)