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34 Cards in this Set

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Describe atrial pressure waves.
a: atria contract
c: ventricles begin to contract
v: ventricles end contraction
end of a wave: A/V valve closes
end of v wave: A/V valve opens
What are the EKG wave forms?
P: spread of depol thru atria
QRS: spread of depol thru ventricles
T: repol of ventricles
Where does the aortic valve close?
between III and IV.
TPR?
Total peripheral resistance
TPR aka
Afterload
EDV aka
Preload
EDV - ESV
Stroke volume
diastasis?
final stage of diastole
cardiac output eqn
CO = HR * SV
The percent that CO can increase during severe exercise.
cardiac reserve
cardiac index?
CO / body surface area
(avg 3 L/min/m2 for adults)
mean arterial pressure: what are weights of diastole and systole?
60% diastole and 40% systole
mean arterial pressure aka
mean after load or pulse pressure
pressure dip in aorta after valve closure
dicrotic notch
dicrotic notch aka
incisura
The greater the heart is stretched during filling, the greater the force of contraction and the more blood is delivered to aorta.
Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart
an increase in carbon dioxide in the blood causes oxygen to be displaced from the hemoglobin.
Bohr effect
binding of oxygen with hemoglobin tends to displace carbon dioxide from the blood
Haldane effect
conditions that positively increase the force of contraction
positive inotropism
conditions which decrease the force of contraction
negative inotropism
SV/EDV = (EDV - ESV)/EDV = ?
ejection fraction
Where is the atrial repolarization in an EKG?
hidden in the QRS.
Einthoven's triangle?
the so-called standard bipolar limb leads.
The term “bipolar” means that..
the electrocardiogram is recorded from two electrodes located on different sides of the heart, in this case, on the limbs.
1/ resistance?
conductance
1mmHg = ? mmH2O?
13.6
Laplace's law of tension in a tube
T = P * r
Flow eqn
Q = change in P / R
Poiseuille's law
Q = Pi*r^4*change in P / (8*eta*l)
Hematocrit normal value
40-45%
RBCs/vol
4-6million/ ul
How much oxygen bound to 1 g of Hb
1.34 mls
grams of Hb per 100ml of blood
15
mls of oxygen per 100mls of blood
20.1