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76 Cards in this Set

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Tetanic Muscle Contraction
Sustained, Steady contraction
muscle Twitch
Jerky, swift response to a single stimulus
isotonic muscle contraction
Tension remains the same, but muscle shortens. (Lifting a heavy weight.)
Isometric muscle contraction
Increase in tension, but no change in muscle length. (Moving a brick wall.)
Isolytic
Passive movement (someone moves your muscle for you.)
Slow Twitch muscle Fibers
Red Fibers, for endurance
Fast Twitch muscle fibers
White Fibers, for short term use (sprinting)
Intermediate muscle fibers
Equal combination of slow and fast twitch muscle fibers
Origin
Attached to less movable bone
Insertion
Attached to more movable bone
3 ways muscle attaches to bone.
Belly of muscle to bone
muscle tendon to bone
aponeurosis
agonist
prime mover muscle
vasodiolation
inrease in size of blood vessels
tone
a partially contracted state of muscle
4 characteristics of muscle
-Irritability / Excitability
-contracibility
-extensibility
-elasticity
oxygen debt
no air left in muscle
anaerobic process
permits greater amount of activity for a short time (2nd wind)
Lactic acid
muscle byproduct
glycogen
stored glucose
myogloben
stored oxygen
ATP / adenosintriphosphate
energy contained from the breakdown of nutrients
4 functions of skeletal muscle
M - movement
P - posture
H - heat
S - stabilization of joints
Sarcomeres
basic functional or contractyle unit of skeletal muscle.
actin protein
sarcomere protien
thin and light
Myosin protein
sarcomere protien
heavy and dark
skeletal muscles
striated
multi-nucleated
650
40% of body weight
every muscle fiber is a single cell
3 types of muscles
Cardiac
Skeletal
Smooth
Synergist
Helper muscle
antagonist
muscle which stops the movement / opposer
hypotonic / atrophy
lack of muscle tone
Hypertrophy
Increase in size of muscle fibers
hypertonic
knots in muscle
Haversian System
building blocks of compact bone
layers of compact bone
Traberculae
Lacunae
lamella
rings of calcium and collagen
Hairline / Stress bone fracture
Crack on bone
Simple bone Fracture
bone breaks, but does not come apart
compound bone fracture
bone breaks and comes apart, pierces skin
Number of bones in body
206
Functions of bones
5 - structure / framework/ support
5 - storage of minerals
M - movement / lever system
P - protection of vital organs
H - hemopoiesis / production of red blood cells
Steps of Bone Cell Formation
Osteoblast
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts
Osteoblast
cell that forms bones
Osteocytes
mature bone cells
Osteoclasts
reabsorb old cells and start process over again
piezoelectric
small amount of electricity that is given off when bones are under stress that causes them to be slightly flexible
condyle
rounded process (knuckle-like)
medial epicondyle
crest
narrow ridge of bone
illiac crest
head
portion supported on a constricted part (neck)
head of femur
spine (spinus process)
sharp, slender process or ridge
spine of scapula
trochanter
very large, rounded process
greater trochanter of femur
tuberosity
large, rounded process
ischial tuberosity
tubercle
small rounded process
greater tubercle of humerus
Fissure
narrow slit in bone
inferior orbitle
foramen
hole through bone for vessels, ligaments, and nerves
vertibral foramen
fossa
depression in or upon a bone
glenoid fossa
groove
groove in bone
(sulcus / furrow)
inter teburcular groove of humerus
meatus
canal / long tubelike passageway
auditory meatus
sinus
cavity within a bone
ethmoid sinus
synarthrodial joints
little / no movement
sutures
sacrum
hip bone
sternum
amphiarhrodial joints
slightly moveable
symphysis pubis
intervertebral discs
diarthrodial joints
freely moveable
elbows
knees
shoulder
Parallel muscle
quadratus lumborum
pronator quadratus
convergent muscle
pec minor
traps
unipennate muscle
lumbricals
circular muscle
orbicularis occuli
orbicularis oris
pennate
vastus lateralis
golgi tendon organ
in the muscle tendon there is something that sends info that the muscle has gone too far
ischemic
decrease of blood flow
Muscle healing time
2-4 weeks
Tendon healing time
4-6 weeks
ligament healing time
6-8 weeks
What are the muscles of the rotator cuff?
SITS
Suprispinatus
infraspinatus
teres minor
subscapularis
What are the 3 divisons of the erector spinae?
iliocostalis
spinalis
longissimus
Longest Muscle in the body
Sartorius
3 things a muscle needs for contraction
oxygen
glucose
calcium
In forming whole muscles, fibers are arraged in bundles or ________
fascicles