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54 Cards in this Set

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The Cantril study of media effects found that
better-educated people were less likely to believe what the media said.
The 1971 study of violence and TV, conducted by george Gerbner, found that
TV violence affected some children who were already pre-disposed to violence.
The People's Choice study
found that family and friends have more effect on people's voting decisions than the media.
The report "Television Advertising to Children" revealed that
younger children pay more attention to TV than older children.
After studying the 1972 Presidential race (The Unseeing Eye), researchers Thomas Patterson and Robert McClure concluded that political advertising on TV
always worked to get voters to switch their support, affected the way a mjority decides to vote, was able to manipulate about 7% of voters, is the least cost effective method of reaching voters.
researcher Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann says the media discourage people from expressing views that disagree with the prevailing point of view. This effect is called:
the spiral of silence.
After congress held hearings on violent content in TV programming in 1993, cable operators and network broadcasters agreed:
to develop violence ratings for TV programming.
The cost of National and State-wide political campaigns has:
remained the same from 2000 to the 2008 election.
Which was the first major media effects study to find that people with different personality characteristics interpreted media messages differently?
The Cantril Study
Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas were:
animators at Disney who made 23 films over their career.
In the classic definition, public relations involves
creating understanding for or good will towards, a company, a person, or a product.
An organized attack against a corporation presented on the internet is called a:
Cybersmear
The nation's largest single employer of public information people is
the federal government.
What is NOT recommended by public relations experts in the event of a company crisis?
Avoid telling the whole truth.
Many firms attempt to use PR to get positive publicity for their products because:
It is cheaper to get a publicity release published than to purchase an ad.
In the future, PR people must:
pay close attention to the media industries, expand overseas, incorporate new technologies, and be aware of changing demographics.
The internet offers many benefits for PR companies because:
It can deliver information quickly, PR helps create a company's face on the internet, nes releases can be made available online, and company profiles can be made available online.
Which types of industries are likely to use PR?
Businesses, non-profit organizations, educational institutions, and professional sports teams.
What is a major difference between the practice of public relations and the practice of advertising?
Advertising people usually aren't involved in corporate policy decisions and PR people are.
The word "ethics" derives from the Greek word "ethos", which means:
traditions that govern a culture.
New York Times reporter Zachery Kouwe was suspended because he:
plagiarized portions of an article he had written for The Times from an article by a Wall Street Journal reporter.
When reporters go on free trips and/or are given free passes t entertainment events, it could result in:
conflict of interest.
Which overriding ethical question is raised when the media report that a famous person is suffering from AIDS?
Is it an invasion of the person's privacy?
Making decisions based on principles that you want to be universally applied is an example of:
Kant's categorical imperative.
A readers' representative(ombudsperson):
acts as a go-between from the public to the newsroom.
Disinformation is the practice of:
government misleading the media to achieve its objectives with the public.
What activity runs counter to the Society of Professional Journalists' ethical guideline to "act independently"?
CNN's reporters blending in with Fish and Wildlife agents during a raid on a ranch in Montana.
What is advertising?
A support industry in America, any paid form of non-personal presentation by a sponsor, how consumers pay for most of their media, and overseen by the FCC.
Daniel Boorstin said advertising in the U.S. have:
repetition, an advertising style, and ubiquity.
The ubiquity of advertising means that
advertising is everywhere.
The term "demographics" refers to
the analysis of audience characteristics, such as sex, age and marital status.
Advertisers use a formula based on the cost of reaching how many people?
1,000.
Where do small, local businesses tend to spend their advertising funds?
Newspaper advertising.
The federal agency responsible for monitoring ads for deception is
the Federal Trade Commision.
The food and drug administration
oversees claims that appear on food labels.
During the civil war
reporters were accredited for the first time as war correspondents by the government.
The top internet site today is
Yahoo! News
The Audience for TV network news is
declining.
News organizations like CNN and ABC News increasingly seek to hire reporters that:
are good looking, prize winning photo journalists, all- or single- platform journalists.
The first TV newscasts
were 15 minutes long.
The Golden Age of television began in
1961 with President John F. Kennedy's inauguration.
Which term describes journalists who were allowed to cover the Iraq war(supervised by the US military) on the front line?
"Embedded".
The tendency of journalists to report similar quick conclusions about an event is called
consensus journalism.
News coverage of WW2 was
an opportunity for radio to bring America closer to the action then they had never been.
Concerning the policy of embedded reporters with troops in the Iraq war, they
did not exclude combat reporters.
The ______ theory of the press assumes people with opposing views will be heard.
Libertarian.
In most developmental countries, radio
is the dominant communications medium.
The print media model of fairness and balance in news coverage is strongest in what country?
Canada.
In 2002, for the first time the number of cell phones
exceeded the number of land lines.
Ethnocentric
promoting the superiority of one ethic group over another.
Journalists in Latin America face danger because
the media can represent a challenge to political power.
U.S. is ranked first in the number of wireless hotspots and has twice as many hotspots than the runner-up...
China.
The International Herald Tribune:
is currently the world's largest english-language newspaper (180 countries), is based in Paris, published at 35 sites worldwide, owned wholly by the New York Times, and was founded by J Gordon Bennett Jr.
What is NOT a factor now prompting media companies in the U.S. to seek a global audience?
Worldwide acceptance of U.S. programming by all foreign governments.