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59 Cards in this Set

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Mass media
blah blah blah
John Peter Zenger
Defied authorities in the NY Journal by criticizing the governor at the time
Alien & Seditions Acts
Prohibited false, scandalous, malicious statements about the govt.
Penny papers
affordable by everyone, would attract a larger number of people
inverted pyramid
most important info first
-created in case telegraph lines failed
Variables about what gets reported in the news
news hole
news flow
news staffing
perceptions about audience
availability of material
competition
News hole
Space for news in a newspaper after ads are inserted
Gatekeepers
Person who decides whether to shorten, drop or change a story en route to the mass audience
off the record
absolute embargo on information
What are some of the current trends in journalism?
Nonstop coverage
Live news
Unedited blogs
Exploratory news
Soft News
George Creel
demonstrated PR works on a mammoth scale in WWI to make the war look popular
Elmer Davis
Led office of War information in WWII
Image consulting
coaching individuals for media contacts
PRSA
Public Relations Society of America
As society becomes more prosperous... what happens to advertising?
More advertising
Departments in an ad agency
Creativity-creative directors
Liasion-account executives
Buying-media buyers
Research
What does CPM mean?
Cost per thousand
When people are ready to buy, they are more tuned in to what type of media?
Television
What type of media has the most advertising revenue per year?
Television
Who gets paid from the google pop through ads?
Gooooooooogle
Ivy Lee
Laid out fundamentals of PR
-converting industry toward openness
-turning negative news into positive news
-putting corporate executives on display
-avoiding puffery and fluff
Probability sampling
everyone in population being surveyed has an equal chance to be sampled
What's most important concerning sample size?
That a large number is involved
How much did it cost for a Superbowl ad this year?
2.5 million
How do TV audiences get measured?
Meters
People Meters
Portable Meters
Zipping
Viewers change tv stations to avoid commercials
Zapping
Viewers record programs and eliminate commercial breaks
Flushing
Viewers leave during commercial breaks
Focus groups
Small groups interviewed in loosely structured ways for opinion, reactions
Galvanic skin checks
Monitor pulse, skin response to stimuli
VALS
Psychographic analysis by values, lifestyle, life stage
Belongers
38 % of population
conformists
satisfied w/ mainstream values and reluctant to change brands once they are satisfied
True or False
Do media companies sponsor research in technological fields?
True
Interpersonal communication
Usually 2 people face to face
Harold Laswell
Narrative model
Who says what?
In which channel?
To whom?
With what effect?
Shannon/Weaver
Basic Model
stimulation
encoding
transmission
decoding
internalization
Walter Lippmann
book-Public Opinion
argued we dont see world as it is but rather see it through "pictures in our heads"
Narcoticizing dysfunction
People deceive themselves into believing they are involved when actually they are only informed
Catharic effect
People release violent inclinations by seeing them portrayed
Media induced passivity
Media entice people away from social involvement
What happened with the war and reporting news?
Telegraph
inverted pyramid
Agenda setting
Media tell people what to think about, not what to think
yellow period
Quest to sell more copies let to excesses in the circulation war
What war may have started as a result of the battle b/w Pulitzer and Hearst?
The Spanish-American War
American model of Journalism
Associated Press
Newspaper Economics
Media Conglomeration
European
Never consolidated
Include their values more
Benjamin Day
started the New York Sun which was the first penny newspaper
Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann
leading cumulative effects theorist who said that the media does not have powerful immediate effects
cumulative effects theory
theory that media influence is gradual over time
What is the quickest we get ratings for tv?
Overnight
Socialization
Media helps people fit into society
Two-step flow model
Media effects on individuals come through complex interpersonal connections
Semantic noise
Sloppy message crafting
Sweeps
When broadcast ratings are conducted
Margin of error
Percentage that a survey may be off mark
Crisis management
Helping a client through an emergency
Where was the first ad agency found and by who?
Philadelphia
Ayer and Son
What was the first form of advertising?
A flyer for a book
How did the Associated Press start?
Got together and sent less reporters to cover news stores
objectivity started here