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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Paradoxes of Technological Products
-fullfills/creates needs
Characteristics of services
-Heterogeneity (variability)
-Simultaneous Production & Consumption (inseparability)
Implications of Intangibility
-Can't be inventoried
-Can't be easily patented
-Can't be readily displayed of communicated
-Pricing is difficult
Implications of Heterogeneity
-delivery and customer satisfaction depend on employee and customer actions

-quality depends on many uncontrollable factors

-No sure knowledge that the service delivered matches what was planned/promoted
Implications of simultaneous production & consumption
-customers participate in and affect the transaction

-customers affect each other

-Employees affect the service outcome

-decentralization may be essential

-mass production is difficult
Implications of perishability
-difficult to synchronize supply & demand with services

-services can't be returned/resold
Marketing Mix for services
-Physical evidence
Customer Gap
Difference between customer expectations and perceptions
Provider Gaps
1. Knowledge Gap-not knowing what the customer expects

2. Service Design and Standards Gap-not having the right service designs and standards

3. Service Performance Gap-not delivering to service standards

4. Communication Gap-not matching performance to promises
Factors Leading to Gap 1
-Inadequate marketing research orientation

-Lack of upward communication

-Insufficient relationship focus

-Inadequate service recovery
Factors leading to Gap 2
-Poor service design

-Absence of customer driven standards

-Inappropriate physical evidence and servicescape
Factors leading to Gap 3
-Deficiencies in HR policies

-Customers who don't fulfill roles

-Problems with service intermediaries

-Failure to match supply and demand
Factors leading to Gap 4
-Lack of integrated services marketing communications

-Ineffective management of customer expectations


-Inadequate horizontal communications
Consumer evaluation processes for services
-Search Qualities
-Experience Qualities
-Credence Qualities
Search Qualities
Attributes a consumer can determine prior to purchase of a product
Experience Qualities
Attributes a consumer can determine after purchase (or during consumption) or a product
Credence Qualities
Characteristics that may be impossible toe valuate even after purchase and consumption
Issues to consider in examining consumer's service experience
-services as processes
-service provision as drama
-service roles and scripts
-compatibility of service customers
-customer coproduction
-emotion and mood
Factors that influence desired service
-lasting service intensifiers
-personal needs
Factors that influence adequate service
-Temporary service intensifiers
-perceived service alternatives
-self perceived service roles
-situational factors
-predicted service
Factors that influence predicted service
-explicit service promises
-implicit service promises
-word of mouth
-past experiences
Factors influencing customer satisfaction
-product/service quality
-specific product/service features
-consumer emotions
-attributions for service success/failure
-perceptions of equity/fairness
-other consumers, family & co-workers
-Personal factors
Outcomes of customer satisfaction
-Increased customer retention
-Positive word of mouth communications
-increased revenues
Service Quality
Customer's judgment of overall excellence of service provided in relation to service quality expected

formed on judgments of outcome quality, interaction quality, physical environment quality
Five Dimensions of Service Quality
-providing service as promised

-dependability in handling customers' service problems

-performing services right the first time

-providing services at the promised time

-maintaining error-free records
-Keeping customers informed as to when services will be performed

-prompt service to customers

-willingness to help customers

-readiness to respond to customers' requests
-Employees who instill confidence in customers

-making customers feel safe in their transactions

-employees who are consistently courteous

-employees who have the knowledge to answer customer questions
-giving customers individual attention

-Employees who deal with customers in a caring fashion

-having the customer's best interest at heart

-Employees who understand the needs of their customers

-Convenient business hours
-Modern equipment

-visually appealing facilities

-employees who have a neat, professional appearance

-visually appealing materials associated with the service
Service Encounter
-occurs when the customer interacts with the firm

-can be critical in determining customer satisfaction and loyalty

-opportunity to build trust, reinforce quality, build brand identity, increase loyalty