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122 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is Inertia to Passion?
An indication of the levels of consumer involvement. Less involvement equals less time making decisions (inertia). More time spent making decisions (Passion)
What is the criteria for a market?
Customers and potential customers who share a common need that can be satisfied by a specific product and are willing, able, and have the authority to make the exchange
What are the aspects of Utility?
The usefulness or benefit customers receive from a product that makes consumers feel they are buying more than a product, but a lifestyle. Includes time, place, possession, form, and info
What is time utility?
The benefit marketing provides by storing products until they are needed - Ex. a woman renting a wedding dress
What is place utility?
Making products available where customers want them - Ex. a dress sewn in New York is no use to a woman in Kansas unless shipped on time
What is possession utility?
Allowing customers to own, use, and enjoy a product and sometimes when you otherwise wouldn't be able to - Ex. Best buy selling a TV on a payment plan
What is form Utility?
A company adds value by transforming raw materials into a finished good
What is information utility?
Comes in the form of informed staff who are knowledgeable about the product and can inform you about the product you are interested in
What is value?
The benefits a customer receives from buying a good or service and there is more value if the benefits outweigh the costs
What are the components of value?
Image, personal, services, product. Monetary cost, energy cost, psychic cost, all yield total customer cost and together they all yield customer delivered value
What is the Societal Marketing Orientation (New Era)?
Has an emphasis on satisfying the broader needs of society (employees, stakeholders, etc.) Similar to marketing orientation, but also builds long-term relationships, not just satisfies one time needs
What is the Marketing (Customer) Orientation?
A company that practices the marketing concept by determining and satisfying customer needs and wants at a profit
What is the Selling Orientation?
Getting the product out the door, reducing inventories, product supply is greater than the demand. Focuses on one time needs and does not establish long-term relationships
What is the Competitor Orientation?
The focus of this orientation is on competitor intelligence. Learning and reacting to what the competition is doing
What is the Production Orientation?
Emphasis is on making the product better. Production efficiencies are best when demand surpasses supply
What is marketing myopia?
Being short-sided/limited. A company wants to avoid being myopic meaning too narrow with their products
What is a SWOT analysis?
The second step in strategic planning in which internal and external environments are assessed by strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
What are SWOT interactions?
Leverage = strength + opportunities
Vulnerability = strengths + threats
Constraint = weaknesses + opportunities
Problem = weaknesses + threats
What is a portfolio analysis?
The BCG matrix grid that analyzes the stages of a products life including star, dog, question mark, and cash cow
What is the BCG Growth Matrix?
Analyzes the potential for products to generate cash for the firm. Tells managers which products should grow (BCG stands for Boston Consulting Group)
What does the Star represent in the BCG Growth Matrix?
Represents high industry growth and high relative market. Requires much investment, generates high revenues. Build strategy to increase market share
What is the Cash Cow in the BCG Growth Matrix?
Owns the majority of the market. Low industry growth, high relative market share. Requires less investment and generates high revenues. Hold strategy to preserve market share
What is the Dog in the BCG Growth Matrix?
Sucks. Low market share and low market growth. Divest strategy to get rids of SBUs as quickly as possible
What is the Question Mark in the BCG Growth Matrix?
Low relative market share, but high market growth. Requires much investment and generates relatively low revenues. Harvest strategy to focus on short term profits
What is ethnocentrism?
The tendency to prefer products or people of one's own culture. The norms/products of one's culture are perceived to be superior
What are demographics?
Statistics that measure observable aspects of a population including size, age, gender, ethnic group, income, education, occupation and family structure
What are social norms?
Specific rules dictating what is right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable in society
What are cultural values?
A society's deeply held beliefs about the right and wrong way to live
What is product standardization?
Advocates of product standardization argue that the world has become so small that basic needs and wants are the same everywhere. Helps create global brands such as Coca Cola
What is localization?
The world is still very different and companies need to tailor products and promotional messages to local environments
What is an independent variable?
Manipulated by researcher, controlled or selected by the experimenter to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon
What is a dependent variable?
Measured by researcher, not directly controlled and is the variable that is observed
What are the advantages of primary data collection techniques?
Respondent feels anonymous, low cost, good for ongoing research
What are the disadvantages of primary data collection techniques?
Take long to be returned, low rate of response or may not be returned, inflexible, length is limited by respondents interest in the topic
What is data mining?
The process which analysts sift through data to identify unique patterns of behavior among different customer groups
What is CRM?
Customer Relationship Management - a business strategy designed to optimize profitability, revenue, and customer satisfaction
What is segmentation process?
Dividing a larger market into smaller pieces based on one or more meaningfully shared characteristics
What is the concentrated segmentation strategy?
Only focus on one segment, most companies start with this. Focuses efforts on offering one ore more products to a single segment
What is the differentiated segmentation strategy?
Different product offerings for each segment. Developing one ore more products for each of the several distinct customer groups and making sure these offerings are kept separate in the marketplace
What is the undifferentiated segmentation strategy?
One strategy for everyone, mass marketing. Appealing to a broad spectrum of people
What is the decision making process?
Step 1: Problem recognition - consumer sees significant differences between his current state of affairs and some desired affairs. Step 2: Information Search - consumer searches for appropriate info to make reasonable decision. Step 3: Evaluate Alternatives - evaluate by what is important to you such as price, weight, design, etc. Step 4: Product Choice - choose and make the purchase based on brand loyalty heuristics, country of origin heuristics. Step 5: Postpurchase evaluation - overall feelings of satisfaction or disatisfaction
What is extended problem solving?
High involvement, usually for expensive items like houses or cars
What is limited problem solving?
Medium involvement for items like jeans
What is routine/habitual problem solving?
Low involvement, habit brand purchases for items like milk or newpapers
What is an opinion leader?
A person who influences other's attitudes or behaviors. One generally trusts and knows opinion leaders, they will tell you both the positive and negatives about a product
What is stimulus generalization?
Existing S-R (Stimulus-Response) relationship generalizes to a new (similar) stimulus - generalizes the relationship to another stimuli
What are "me too products"?
A strategy in which you make your product look very similar to one that is already produced by other companies and is already on the market - known as the halo effect
What is an Evoked Set?
A small set of choices that you would even consider, the shortlist of potential products that the consumer has to choose from within the purchasing decision making process - like which bike to choose
What is the Elaboration LIkelihood Model (ELM)?
How attitudes were formed and how change was developed and distinguished between two routes of persuasion. Central route - subject considers the idea logically. Peripheral route - audience uses preexisting ideas and superficial qualities to be persuaded
What is new task buying?
Expensive, high-risk, and extensive decision making like buying a jet
What is a modified rebuy?
A buying situation classification used by business buyers to categorize previously made purchases that involves some changes and that requires limited decision making - modification to products like buying a new truck
What is a straight rebuy?
A buying situation in which business buyers make routine purchases that require minimal decision making, consistent with habitual decision making
What is crowdsourcing?
A practice in which firms outsource marketing activities (such as selecting an advertisement) to a community of users - harness crowds and source solution to business problems
What is outsourcing?
The business buying process of obtaining outside vendors to provide goods or services that otherwise might be supplied in house
What is a product?
Anything tangible or intangible that through the exchange process, satisfies consumer/business customer needs - there are emotions and feelings attached to products
What are core products?
Benefits product will provide. Ex. car = transportation
What is the actual product?
Physical good or delivered service. Ex. the car itself
What is augmented product?
The actual product + supporting features. Ex. car warranty for 3 years or $36,000
What is a convenience consumer product?
Consumer good or product that is usually low priced, widely available, and purchased frequently with minimal comparison and effort - staple items like milk
What is a shopping consumer product?
Products that take time and effort (high involvement) in selection, there is moderate brand loyalty, comparison shop, and limited problem solving - clothing, appliances, services, etc.
What are specialty consumer products?
Unique characteristics and is important to the buyer and for which they will devote significant effort to acquire. Brand loyalty, durable good (high involvement) and important - Rolex, car, other luxury goods
What is an unsought consumer product?
The consumer has little awareness or interest of the product until the need for it arises, requires much advertising and personal selling - retirement plans, life insurance, burial plots, etc.
What is a durable good?
Goods with long-term benefits and high-involvement - cars and appliances
What is product adoption?
Process in which consumer or business begins to buy and use goods, services, or ideas - Stages include awareness, interest, evaluation, trail, confirmation
What are the categories of adopters?
Innovators, Early adopters, Early majority, late majority, and laggard
What is the product life cycle?
Explains how products change over time - introduction stage, growth stage, maturity stage, decline stage
What is brand equity?
The worth of a company's brand name in comparison to others in the same market
What are characteristics of a service?
Intangible - cant see it. Perishable - cant save a service for later time. Inseparable - manufactured and consumed at the same time. Variable - service can change or vary
What is gap analysis and satisfaction?
A measurement approach that gauges the difference between a customer's expectations of service quality and what actually occurs. By identifying specific places in the service system where there is a gap between what customers except and the service they received - used to get a handle on what needs to improve
What are the functions of a distribution channel?
Facilitates distribution or a product to the final customer, provides time, space, and ownership utility, but not form, increases efficiency from manufacturers to large number of customers, transportation and storage functions, communication and transactions, breaks bulk, creates assortment
What is a direct distribution channel?
Channel consists of a producer and a customer
What is an indirect distribution channel?
One or more channel intermediaries, such as wholesalers, agents, brokers, and retailers who help move the product to the consumer or business user
What is a consumer channel?
Direct from manufacturer to consumer and Indirect where anybody in between such as a wholesaler or retailer sells to consumer
What is a B2B distribution channel?
Direct is manufacturer to business, Indirect uses intermediaries such as industrial distributors to business customers
How is internet used as a distribution channel?
Eliminates layers of channels of distribution, allows you to receive/order products online, communication of the supply chain via internet, knowledge management
What is a channel leader?
Dominant firm that controls channels, have some form of power relative to other members of the channel
What is channel power?
Gains legitimate power when it has legal authority to call shots, gains economic power when it has ability to control resources, has a reward or coercive power if it engages in exclusive distribution and has the ability to give profitable products and take them away from channel intermediaries
What is price?
A value customers give up or exchange to obtain the desired product, may be in the form of anything that has value to the other party such as goods, services, or favors - opportunity cost is the cost of the things you give up
What is a BE analysis?
How many units of the product must be sold at a certain price to break even. Total fixed costs/unit selling price - unit variable costs
What is psychological pricing?
Consumers base their perceptions of price on what they perceive to be fair - reference price based on buyer's expectations, internal reference prices, and price-quality references
What is odd/even pricing?
Customers would rather see prices in odd numbers rather than even because we think they are lower ($4.99) Prestige products do not use this
What is price lining?
Items in a product line sell at different prices - cameras priced from $25, $50, $75 and no prices in between
What is promotional mix?
Refers to the communication elements that the marketer controls. Involves multiple elements such as advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity and PR, direct marketing, and multi-level marketing
What is the Top-Down approach?
Requires top management to establish the overall amount of money that the organization allocates for promotion activities
What is the Bottom-Up approach?
Start at the beginning by identifying promotion goals and allocate enough money to accomplish them
What is competitive parity?
Looking at what the competition is spending then spending the same
What is public relations?
Attempts to influence the way consumers, stockholders, and other publics feel about companies, brands, politicians, celebrities, or other organizations
What is a press release?
Information distributed to media by organizations about its activities and intended to appear as publicity
What is personal selling?
Direct interaction between a company representative and a customer to inform a client about a good or service to get a sale
What is transactional selling?
A form of personal selling that focuses on making an immediate sale with little or no attempt to develop a relationship with the customer
What is relationship selling?
A form of personal selling that involves securing, developing, and maintaining long-term relationships with profitable customers
What is a push strategy?
The company wants to move its products by convincing channel members to offer them and entice their customers to select these items - it pushes them through the channel. Assumes that if the customers see the products on store shelves, they will be motivated to make a trial purchase - promotion efforts will push products from producers to consumers
What is a pull strategy?
Counting on the customers to demand its products, popularity will convince retailers to respond by stocking these items on their shelves- uses media advertising and consumer sales
What is IMC?
Integrated Marketing Communications - a process for managing customer relationships that drive brand value primarily through communication efforts
What is buzz?
Made by the public
What is hype?
Something a company or brand creates
What is stealth marketing?
You have no idea you are being marketed to
What is guerilla marketing?
Unexpected, unconventional, potentially interactive, and consumers are targeted in unexpected places
What is viral marketing?
Consumers passing a message along to other consumers, hopefully in an exponential form - high pass along rates seen through facebook, email, youtube, etc.
What are QR codes?
A quick response code - type of matrix barcode that can be scanned by smart phones - tracking dominoes pizza order in class
What is a Sales Manager Role?
Process of planning, implementing, and controlling personal selling functions - prospecting, create sales force strategy, recruiting and training, evaluating sales force, compensation plans, setting objectives
What is prospecting?
Who to pursue on a business level as a consumer
What is a straight commission compensation plan?
Does not reward performance, reduces pushy sales people, likely to facilitate transactional selling
What is a commission withdraw compensation plan?
Get paid weekly, owe company money
What is a straight salary compensation plan?
Get paid on regular basis, relationship selling
What is a quota bonus compensation plan?
Meet quota and receive a bonus
What is a combination compensation plan?
Most companies do this - involves two or more compensation plans
What is corporate social responsibility?
A new era corporate orientation, improve company image through different activities by giving back to the community using philanthropic and environmental approaches
What is greenwashing?
The act of misleading consumers regarding the environmental practices of a company or the environmental benefits of a product or service
What is the sin of hidden trade off?
A claim suggesting a product is green based off a narrow set of attributes without attention to other important environmental issues
What is sin of no proof?
An environmental claim that cannot be substantiated by easily accessible supporting information or by a reliable third party certification
What is the sin of vagueness?
A claim this is so poorly defined or broad that its real meaning is likely to be misunderstood by the consumer
What is the sin of irrelevance?
An environmental claim that may be truthful but is unimportant or helpful
What is the sin of lesser of two evils?
Claim that may be true within the product category, but that risks distracting the consumer from the greater environmental impacts of the category as a whole
What is the sin of fibbing?
Environmental claims that are simply false
What is the sin of worshipping false labels?
A product that, through either words or images, gives the impression of third party endorsement where no such endorsement exists
What are the benefits for consumers for technology in consumption?
Consumers check all the suggested low carbon emission products, indicate that they have bought a suggested product and collected points, share product purchase over the internet, send a signal about their buying habits, use this as an extension of self/self-enhancement, and get info right away
What are consumer rights?
Right to safety - products should not harm their users. Right to be informed - complete and truthful info for consumers to make product choices. Right to choose - should have a variety of options for products from different companies. Right to be heard - consumers can voice concerns and complaints about the product in order to have the issue handled efficiently
What are ethics?
Advertising is manipulative - causes people to behave like robots and do things against their will. Advertising is deceptive and untruthful - ads falsely represent the product and consumers believe false info. Corrective advertising - message that clarifies or qualifies previous claims. Puffery - claims superiority that neither sponsors nor critics of the ad can prove are true or untrue.
What is global branding?
Widening business horizons to encompass the world in scanning for opportunity and threat - implements either standardization or localization
What is BACN?
Bland automated community notifications - we ask for these notifications such as deals from hotels or airlines
What is spam?
Pop ups that people hate!