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61 Cards in this Set

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Marketing Communication
coordination of all seller-initiated efforts to set up channels of info and persuasion to sell goods & services or promote an idea
3 Roles/Main Objectives of Mar Com:
1 Inform- what, where, how; esp. for new products

2 Persuade- why, create selective demand

3 Remind- buy, rebuy, positive word of mouth; esp. for old products
(def & Ex)
anyone who has a stake in the success of a co or its products

employees, retailers, distributors, suppliers, local community, media, govt. regulators, customers, competitors
brand equity
amount of share holds compared to other brands; value of the brand; how popular; how many pple know of it; what customers think about it
Tools of Communication
1 Advertising
2 Direct Marketing
3 Internet/Interactive Marketing
4 Sales Promotion
5 Personal Selling
6 Publicity
7 Public Relations
8 Planned/unplanned messages
any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by identified sponsor

to build a brand by inform, remind, persuade

mass communication:
-broadcast (TV, radio, cinema)
-Print(mag, newspapers)
-Electronic (internet)
definition and examples
direct marketing
communicate directly w/target customers to generate response and/or transaction

direct mail, direct selling, telemarketing, direct response adv. internet marketing
Internet/Interactive marketing
allows for back and forth flow of info whereby users can participate in and modify form & content of info they receive in real time
sales promotion
includes competitions, price promos, premiums, coupons, etc.

consumer or trade oriented
personal selling
person to person communication always face-to-face

seller attempts to assist and/or persuade prospective buyers to purchase co product/service or to act on an idea
non-personal communications regarding an organization, product, service, or idea not directly paid for or run under identified sponsorship

unpaid advertising
Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)
practice of unifying all marketing com tools (from adv to packaging) to send target audience a consistent, persuasive message that promotes co goals

marketer must uphold consistent advertising all around world (i.e. Nivea)
similar colors, styles, adv campaigns

BMW: test drives ARE IMC, price cuts ARE NOT IMC

impt b/c when brand messages are integrated they reinforce each other and create a synergy-like effect (2+2=5)
definition, examples, why important
Aims/Benefits of IMC
-for greater efficiency & impact
-reduce declining customer loyalty: customers skeptical, builds a rlnshp
-international markets demand images that transmit globally

*benefit is breaking through the clutter (600,000 messages per year)
Product & Communication Issues
Product Features: cmct unique benefits & features


Branding: portrays image, includes brand names and logos

Intangibles: emphasis on personal selling

Tangibles: emphasis on adv & sales promo
Mar Com Communication Organization Chart:
VP/Director of Marketing ->
Marketing Manager->
(Brand Manager)->
1) External Agencies
3)Internal/In house Agency

size of org
response time
nature of market/product
size of mar com staff
service priority needeed
3 options for brand manager & factors driving their choice
External Communication Agencies
1 Full Service Adv Agency:

2 Creative boutiques: copy writing & art direction

3 Media Buying Agencies

4 Media Suppliers

5 Sales Promotion Orgs

6 PR Agencies

7 Direct Market Co's: infomercials, brochures

8 Event Organizers

9 Packaging & Design Firms

*full service & rest are limited service agencies
9 types
Services of Full service Adv Agency
acct mgmt, creative services/copy writer, media buying/planning, researchers/acct planners, traffic mgrs for large agencies

*provide total IMC
Freelancers (who are they)
1 Copywriters
2 Art Directors
3 Computer Graphics Experts
4 Photographers
5 Cartoonists/Illustratos
6 Broadcast Producers
7 Casting Directors
8 Commercial Directors
9 Researchers
Internal/In-house Agencies
-Advertising Dept/Manager
-In-house Agency
-Sales/Promotions of PR Dept
-Product Design and Packaging
Functions of In-house Agency
-contain own profit center
-company is a client; external client
-retailers use in-house: Calvin Klein, Avon, Revlon
Purchase Involvement
level of concern for, or interest in purchase process or product

low/high involvement
low involvement purchase
eggs, milk

internal memory; no search for additional info; one-stop shopping
high involvement purchase
jeans, TV, shoes, car

considerable efforts in making decision; many alternatives considered; substantial information search
5 Steps to Consumer Decision Process:
*high-involvement products*

1) Recognizing needs
2)Information Search
3) Evaluating Alternatives
4) Purchase & Store Choice
5) Post Purchase Process
Recognizing Needs
(Consum. Dec. Process)
Actual State vs. Desired State
Information Search
internal & external search of information

friends, store, internet, consumer reports
Eval of alternatives & purchases
why pple shop

compare brands, stores, prices, features, etc.
Purchase & store Choice
chose brand, make purchase

eval criteria for store choice decision
Post-purchase behavior
post-purchase dissonance


post-purchase dissonance
directly after purchase & before consumption

why did I make that choice?; anxiety about decision made
4 psychological/internal factors influencing decision making process of consumers
1 Perception
2 Motivation
3 Learning
4 Attitude
subconscious associations made with a particular product; job of marketer is to keep perceptions universal

sports car: red=flashy
add noise to sports car=powerful
vacuum=noisy to "be sure" it's working
shampoo, window cleaner: blue=clean
prices end in $0.99
definition & examples
driving force w/in individuals that compels them to action; to achieve goals in external enviro.

manifest motives & latent motives

Bud DD Adver:
Objective: encourage DD
Motivation: sex, celebrity, DD can be "cool" & "get women"
def, 2 types & ex
manifest motives
known motives, freely admitted
latent motives
unknown motives, consumers are reluctant to admit
process by which individuals acquire purchase & consumption knowledge & experience and then apply that to future related behavior

classical conditioning & Operant/Instrumental conditioning
def & 2 theories
classical conditioning
response learned as result of pairing of 2 stimuli

Spain Adv: "GREEN" = good

music attached w/product

Lebron James' Bubblicious (kids)
Operant/Instrumental Conditioning
learning after using/trying product
Attitude & its 3 components
the way we think, feel and act towards some aspects of our enviro.

i.e. store, TV program, product

1 Cognitive
2 Affective
3 Behavioral (Conative)
Cognitive Attitude
knowledge & beliefs, based on past consumption; opinion of someone else
Affective Attitude
likes & dislikes, based on emotions; see someone you like smoking a cigar
Behavioral Attitude
habits & tendencies
Attitude Change Strategies
attitude change can be achieved through us of persuasive mar com

need to change ONLY ONE component of attitude then overall attitude will change
Change Cognitive Component
*only need to change one of these steps

1 change beliefs about poorly evaluated attribute of brand

2 shift relative importance away from poorly eval attributes to positively eval attributes

3 add new beliefs about overall brand

4 change belief about overall brand

5 change beliefs about competing brands: comparative adv.
Change Affective Attitude Component
two steps:

1 Classical Conditioning- 2 stimuli coming together (music/prod)

2 use celebrity/credible sources, humor, fear & emotional appeals (Yao Ming promotes Visa Check card)
Change behavioral Component
Use Operant Conditioning theory: ask customers to learn by trying a product; samples, coupons, etc.

product trial may alter previous negative perception held by consumers
Socio-cultural environment
4 external/enviro influences on consumers' decision making and behavior: external factors influence the way consumers choose products & services and make overall decision

1 Culture/Subculture
2 Lifestyle
3 Social Class
4 Group influence
sum total of learned beliefs, values & customs that serve to regulate consumer behaviors of members of a particular soc.

guide for acceptable behavior

ex. cell phone ad w/naked man: could not show in US
discernible sub group w/in culture that behave differently

distinguishing pattern of behavior
unique pattern of living with influences & is reflected by buying behavior
-spending $, leisure activities

must figure out lifestyle for target market

men/women products
Marketing implications for lifestyle influences
-identify market segments; go beyond simple demographic segments

-position products; accurate match between product & consumers lifestyle

-develop com & media guidelines
Social Class
ranking of pple in society by other members into higher & lower positions to produce hierarchy or respect & prestige

concrete & perceptual dimensions:
edu level, occupation, lifestyle, possessions

Used in MarCom:
1 makes consumer want to move up in society (symbolic consumption)

2 make product desireable (Benz- even manaquines want it)
Reference Groups
any group whose values, norms, attitudes & beliefs are used as guide for behavior by individual
Importance of Reference Groups
-indiv. define & eval self against these groups
-provide standards of conduct that directly affect purchasing behavior
-reference group changes
-belong to many groups @ one time
Types of Reference Groups
1 Membership
2 Aspiration
3 Negative
Membership Group
-to which indiv belongs
-member of local club, team, family, etc.
-AKA contacual group: formal/informal
Aspiration Group
-indiv does not presently belong
-symbolic membership
Negative Group
-indiv disapproves group values
Types of Group Influences
1 Informational: considers info from RG as useful & credible; use credible source (parents, Dr's)

2 Normative: conform to group expectations to win reward/avoid penalty; no credible source of info
*Axe fragrance-wear it, will get ladies

3 Value Expressive: AKA "identification"; promote self-image; use celebrities/successful pple
*latent motive for inner-city kids buying Air Jordans
Opinion Leaders
most knowledgeable in area/expert in product

product-specific knowledge sought by less knowledgeable customers

among 1st to buy product

generally w-o-m communication

OL perceived as: highly credible; objective source of info

Salespeople, CIT, product engineers
major force in Family decision making
family decisions are most important in buying process

kids are MAJOR force in these decisions