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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Consumer Behavior
individuals/groups getting, using, disposing of
products/ideas/experiences  thru use of information
- External Influences – culture/demographics/social status/reference groups/ family
- Internal Influences – perception, learning, memory, motives, personality
Cycle of Consumption
production acquisition consumption disposal
Decision Process
problem recognition --> info search alternative eval
purchase post-purchase
- Prospectors
focus on innovation/change is flexible, usually w/ younger managers
- Defenders
narrow product market, stable customer group, older managers
- Analyzers
price leadership strategy, low cost/low price
- Reactors
no consistent strategy
Effective Segmentation Criteria

1) Measurability
2) Substantiality
3) Accessibility
4) Responsiveness
1) Measurability – can purchasing power of potential segment be identified/measures
2) Substantiality – is segment large enough to warrant separate marketing
3) Accessibility – can targets be reached/served
4) Responsiveness – does segment respond to marketing mix?
How Culture is Learned

• Socialization – process of learning norms/values of a culture
• Enculturation – learning culture by growing up in it
• Acculturation – learning culture thru indirect experience of others
Cultural Values
\Instrumental values
Terminal Values
Instrumental values – shared beliefs about how ppl should behave (ambition)
Terminal Values – desirable life goals (safety, self respect)
Green Marketing
1) develop products which production/use/disposal is less harmful to environment than similar products
2) develop products w/ a positive impact on environment
3) tying product w/ environmental cause/activity (General Mills, 150k to National Parks Foundation)
4) environmentally friendly – environmentally safe, claim must be supported by proof on label
5) Sustainability – methods that are a) profitable for farmer. b) environmentally sound. c) socially responsible
Cause-Related Marketing (Social Marketing)
application of marketing to advance a cause such as a charity, ideology, or activity in order to benefit firm and support cause
-creates behavior in consumer they will “feel good” “be a good person”
Cause-Related Marketing Responsiveness
- Skeptic – doubts CRM is legit, CRM has minimal impact on cause
- Balancer – believes in CRM, but doesn’t go out of their way for the cause
- Attribution-Oriented – concerned w/ motives of CRM, Credibility important
- Socially-Concerned – driven by desire to help
Upper Class
- Upper-upper class – aristocratic families, social elite, leadership of community/civic activities
- Lower-upper class – new-rich/generation of success (split – some save, some spend) Conspicuous Consumption – purchases to reflect wealth
- Upper-Middle Class – no family status or unusual wealth, occupation/edu important. Business ppl, managers concerned w/ keeping high quality of life for their children
Middle Class
- Middle Class – white collar (office worker, teacher) high-paid blue collar (plumbers, supervisors) have Average income, concerned w/ what neighbors think (respectability) crime/drugs are destroying “traditional values”
- Working Class – skilled/semi-skilled factory/service/sales workers, not deeply invested, moderate home, cant afford to move
Lower Class
- Upper-lower Class – poorly educated unskilled laborer, most w/ 50wk/yr minimum wage job, no savings/financial planning
- Lower-lower class – low education/income, unemployed for long periods of time. Look for support from government/ non-profit orgs
Reference Group
or comparison group, is a group whose presumed perspectives, attitudes, or behaviors are used by an individual as the basis for his or her perspectives, attitudes, or behaviors.
Group Classifications

1) Membership
2) Strength of Social Tie
3) Primary Groups
4)Secondary Groups
1) Membership – you’re a member or not, members feel more secure
2) Strength of Social Tie – closeness/intimacy of group
Primary Groups – family/friends w/ strong ties and large influence
Secondary Groups – professional/neighborhood association, less-frequent interaction
Types of Reference Groups

• Avoidance –
• Disclaimant – • Aspirational – • Contractual –
• Avoidance – negative perception w/ non-membership
• Disclaimant – negative perception w/ membership
• Aspirational – positive perception w/ non-membership
• Contractual – positive perception w/ membership
Interpersonal Influence
when thinking/behavior is altered due to other persons’ accidental/expressed/rhetorical communications (Interpersonal is pervasive, not trying to convince anyone of anything)
 Normative (Utilitarian) Influence
occurs when an individual fulfills others’ expectations to gain a direct reward or to avoid a sanction
 Value-Expressive (Identification
Influence occurs when individuals use others’ norms, values, and behaviors as a guide for their own attitudes, values and behaviors.-balance theory
 Informational Social Influence
occurs when an individual uses the values, norms, and behaviors of others as credible and needed evidence about reality.-informational cues
• Common Influence Tactics

• Consistency
• Commitment
• Scarcity
• Influencer Characteristics
• Reciprocity – norm that ppl desire to repay perceived debt (unspecified obligations)
• Consistency – related to ppl’s desire to be personally consistant
• Commitment – related to people wanting to adhere to their stated choice
• Scarcity – a short supply increases demand/desire
• Influencer Characteristics – 1) similarity 2) attractiveness 3) liking 4) expertise (opinion leaders, market mavens, innovators)
Buying Center 1) Initiator –
2) Gatekeeper
3) Decider –
4) Buyer/Purchasing Agent –
5) User
1) Initiator – person who identifies the need
2) Gatekeeper – collects/controls info about purchase
3) Decider – determines what product/service to purchase
4) Buyer/Purchasing Agent – physically acquires product
5) User – those who consumer product/service
Three Types of Organizational Purchases
1) New Task Buys – more money, larger buying center, alternatives considered
2) Strait Rebuys – most common, strive for quick/reliable/consistent loyalty
3) Modified Rebuy – slight alteration on old purchase
Consumer Socialization
imparting norms/values/beliefs/procedures associated with behaving in different social situations
• Direct Socialization
parents purposely train kids w/ consumer knowledge
• Indirect Socialization
passively learning by observing behavior of parents
• Co-Shopping
children shop with the parents
Decision Types

1.• Syncretic (Joint)
2.• Autonomic
• Syncretic (Joint) – decisions made by group within household
• Autonomic – decisions made by single household member
Role Specialization
different decisions made by different ppl within household – helps coordinate purchase/consumption decisions
Role Overload
when competing demands on time/energy overwhelms member
Domestic Groups
primary/involuntary unit of social life between the individual and community
ppl related by blood/marriage/adoption w/ large emotional commitment
co-resident/activity group  informally adopted family, close friends
Family Life Cycle
cyclical stages of roles within family during life (stages can be targeted into individual markets)
giving meaning to sensory stimuli, how ppl interpret the world around them
Sensory Preferences
sights, sounds, tastes, smells, that people like more than others
Phenomenal Absolutism
bias from unrecognizing preferences exist, assume everyone receives sensory the same
Sensory Thresholds

1) Absolute Threshold
2) Differential Threshold –
Weber’s Law –
1) Absolute Threshold – lowest level of input from senses (unwanted stimuli screened)
2) Differential Threshold – just noticeable difference (JND) – minimum change to detect
Weber’s Law – the stronger the initial stimuli, the greater the intensity needed to perceive as different
1) Preattentive Processing
preconscious monitoring of senses in the event of shift in attn
2) Perceptual Selection
portion of stimuli selected for monitoring/focusing attn
3) Perceptual Organization
how to classify perceptions and apply prior knowledge to reclassify perceptions
4) Perceptual Interpretation & Elaboration
how ppl derive meaning from sensory input at that moment
partly response to preferences (feelings/beliefs about likes/dislikes)
-Feelings/emotions are important part of experience/learning/knowledge
-Emotion – mental evaluation process  mental change
• Positive Experience
• Negative Experience
• Peak Experience –
• Transformational Experience
• Anticipated consumption
• Aspiration Gap
• Purchase Experiences
• Consumption Experiences
• Remembered Consumption
• Positive Experience – lead to repeat behavior
• Negative Experience – Lead to avoidance behavior
• Peak Experience – dominate wake-time thoughts
• Transformational Experience – changes in how consumers think/feel about themselves and the world
• Anticipated consumption – prepurchase search in response to problem/desire
• Aspiration Gap – difference in consumption level where someone wants to be over what they can afford to be
• Purchase Experiences – buying or acquiring
• Consumption Experiences – Using
• Remembered Consumption – diminishing marginal utility theory
Consumer Learning
connecting categories to behaviors w/ values in terms of consumer goals
Encoding Evidence
process that consumer select a word/image to represent perceived object
how ppl relate that evidence w/ previous info/beliefs
1) Incidental Learning
– learned “by accident” subconsciously through repetition
2) Learning by Description
acquire info through indirect encounters
3) Vicarious Learning
learning by observing experiences of others
Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)
associate neutral object with meaningful
-Temporal Contiguity Principle
stronger ties if events occur closer together
-Stimulus Generalization
tendency for stimuli to evoke similar responses
Operant “Instrumental” Conditioning (BF Skinner
behavior shaped by
rewards/punishments in market behavior frequency governed by reinforcements
1) Short-term Memory
lasts a few min, small storage capacity. Conscious thought, “working memory”
2) Sensory Memory
stored for a few seconds without attn of person to store it
3) Long-term Memory
anything retained for more than a few min.
a) Semantic Memory – general, easily recalled “knowledge”
b) Episodic Memory – memories tagged with info of time/place (you remember when something happened)
partially collection of images/activities/goals/feelings/roles
-Dependent on specific situations/motives one of many sides influence behavior
-Multiple Self-Concepts – different roles in life: student/son/boyfriend
-Multiple Self-Concepts –
-Multiple Self-Concepts – different roles in life: student/son/boyfriend
Intrapersonal Processes
information processing, affect and motivation
Interpersonal Processes
social perception, choice of interaction strategy, feedback
active observer, the knower, information processor
the known, observed, pre-constructed self image
Looking Glass Self
observed from afar
Extended Self
external objects w/ emotional attachment, “part of yourself”
knowledge database w/ self-concept relevant info
Possible Selves – past/present/future views of self
- Self-Narrative
coherent, context sensitive experiences guide defined self
- Self-Relevant
self-schemas used to compare new info to
- Self-gifts
– frequent messages assuring self boost in self esteem
- Desired Selves
how a person can/wants to be
High Self-Monitors
– concerned w/ consistency of behavior in various given situations
Low Self-Monitors
concerned w/ being themselves in most/all situations
Product Constellations
groups of complimentary products/brands/activities
(marketing can target segments from demographics/media preferences)
Needy: 1) Survivors 2) Sustainers
Outer-Directed Goal Oriented: 3) Belongers 4) Emulators 5) Achievers
Inner-directed goal oriented: 6) I am me 7) experiential 8) socially conscious
9) integrated
segments from control of resources 3 basic motives principles, status, action
Japan VALS – 4 dimensions
1) Exploration – integrators/sustainers
2) Tradition – tradition- innovators/adapters
3) Self-Expression – self- innovator/adapter
4) Realist – High/Low Pragmatics
5) Achievist – Ryoshiki- innovator/adapter
Turkey Lifestyle
- Liberals/Trendsetters – college educated, high income, favor western products
- Moderates/Survivors – concerned w/ price over flash/style (male dominated)
- Traditionalist/conservative – also price-minded, unfavorable to western products (female dominated)
New Zealand Lifestyle
active family values, conservative/quiet lives, educated
liberals, accepted mid-lifers, success-driven extrovert, pragmatic strugglers, social
Chinese Women Lifestyle
- conventional women – family is the priority
- contemporary female – work/family balanced is priority
- searching singles – career-concerned, postpone marriage
- followers – low involvement in social/cultural/physical activities
Thinkers (formerly Fulfilleds)
Thinkers have a moderate respect for the status quo institutions of authority and social decorum, but are open to consider new ideas. Although their incomes allow them many choices, Thinkers are conservative, practical consumers; they look for durability, functionality, and value in the products they buy.
With many wants and needs, Achievers are active in the consumer marketplace. Image is important to Achievers; they favor established, prestige products and services that demonstrate success to their peers. Because of their busy lives, they are often interested in a variety of time-saving devices.
Experiencers are avid consumers and spend a comparatively high proportion of their income on fashion, entertainment, and socializing. Their purchases reflect the emphasis they place on looking good and having "cool" stuff.
As consumers, Believers are predictable; they choose familiar products and established brands. They favor American products and are generally loyal customers.
As consumers, they are as impulsive as their financial circumstance will allow.
They are unimpressed by material possessions other than those with a practical or functional purpose. Because they prefer value to luxury, they buy basic products.
Innovators are very active consumers, and their purchases reflect cultivated tastes for upscale, niche products and services.
Survivors are cautious consumers. They represent a very modest market for most products and services. They are loyal to favorite brands, especially if they can purchase them at a discount.