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109 Cards in this Set

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Sponges-Phylum?
Phylum Porifera
jellyfish-phylum?
Phylum Cnidaria
anemone-phylum?
Phylum Cnidaria
coral-phylum?
Phylum Cnidaria
flatworms-phylum?
Phylum Platyhelminthes
what phylum includes animals that are sessile & inhabit hard bottoms & built around a system of water canals?
Phylum Porifera
What are the 3 body plans of sponges (from simplest to complex)?
1-asconoid, 2-syconoid, 3-levconoid
Water flows in through _______ and then pumped out ________
ostia, osculum
In sponges, what are the cells shaped like donuts that provide the channel needed for water to flow in?
porocytes
What are the 3 layers of Asconoid sponges?
outermost-pinacoderm, middle-mesohyl, innermost-flagellated
What layer of an asconoid sponge consists of pinacocytes?
Pinacoderm
What layer of an asconoid sponge consists collagen & ameboid cells?
mesohyl
What layer of an asconoid sponge consists of choanocytes?
Flagellated
What are the 2 functions of choanocytes?
1-move H20 through sponge, 2-obtain food (They generate water current)
What body plan works only for small sponges? And why?
Asocnoid b/c they do not get enough food by this this filtration method. The best way is to circulate more through more surface area.
What body plan for sponges has more surface area on the incurrent canals & has prosopyles?
syconoid
What body plan is used the most for sponges & includes a flagellated area that is broken into a very complicated canal chamber?
Leuconoid
What is the name of this internal architecutre when the body is hollow & contains a lot of holes where water flows in & then flows out he top?
tubular
What internal architecture has no major hole on top, no hollow area & water enters through small holes & then exits through the nearest big hole?
solid
What are the defenses of sponges?
chemical defenses & spicules
What is the name of the animal that predates on sponges, specifically silicious spicules?
Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys)
What are the asexual reproduction methods used by sponges?
(1)budding & (2)gemmules (the parent casts off a pack of cells [gemmules])
What are the sexual reproduction methods used by sponges?
(1)external fertilization, (2)sexual hermaphrodites (might start off making sperm & then later produce eggs), (3)dioecious-means that both sexes exist
What are the 3 classes of phylum porifera?
Class Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida
Which class has CaCO3 spicules?
Class Calcarea
Which class of Phylum Porifera includes all 3 body plans?
Class Calcarea
Which class of Phylum Porifera contains only leuconoid sponges?
Class Demospongiae
Which class of Phylum Porifera normally consists of silicious spicules?
Class Demospongiae
Which class of Phylum Porifera consists of tubular sponges?
Class Hexactinellida
What phylum has the characteristics: internal space for digestion, GVC opens, mouth encircled by tentacles, radial symmetry, body wall (3 layers), diploblastic, limited organ development & nematocysts?
Phylum Cnidaria
What class/phylum includes animals characterized as: cubicle shaped, normally w/4 tentacles, complex eyes and very small?
Phylum Cnidaria, Class Cubozoa
What are the components of a box jelly or sea wasp sting?
neurotoxin that blocks calcium (affects myocardial membrane), neurotoxin that affects brain which suppresses breathing, and ruptures RBC's
What class/phylum includes animals characterized as: entirely polypoid and with approx. 6000 species?
Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa
What are the 2 subclasses of Anthozoans?
Zoantharia (Hexacorallia) & Alcyonaria (Octocorallia)
What are the 2 orders of the subclass Zoantharia?
Actiniara & Scleractinia
What are the 2 orders of the subclass Alcyonaria?
Order Gorgonacea & Pennatulacea
What is the taxonomy of soft coral?
Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa, Subclass Alcyonaria
What creature has a completely hollow body?
anemones
On anemones, what is the name of the body stalk?
column
On anemones, what is the name of the structure that helps it walk very slowly?
pedal disk
On anemones, where is the mouth located?
pharynx
Is the mesoglea thick/thin in anemones?
thin
On anemones, what is the name of the cilliated tract that becomes inactive when water is expunged?
siphonoglyph
On anemones, what is the name of the structure that when contracted allows creature to shrink?
refractor muscles
On anemones, what is the name of the structure found in some anemones that is used for larger prey capture?
acontial filaments
What does the anemone rely on when waiting for food to come in contact w/tentacles?
waves
Anemones are mainly carnivores but some have photosynthetic properties. What are they?
zooxanthellae, zoochlorellae
Which of the photosynthetic properties are dinoflagellates?
zooxanthellae
Which of the photosynthetic properties are green algae?
zoochlorellae
What are 2 examples of symbiotic relationships in dealing w/anemones?
w/crabs & clownfish. Anemones provide protection. Crabs provide food. Clownfish provides cleaning.
What is a method of asexual reproduction of anemones?
pedal laceration - leave a piece of the foot behind
What is a form of sexual reproduction in anemones?
dioecious - release both sperm/eggs into water
How does anthopleura reproduce?
asexual- splits in half
What anemone species engages in colonial wars?
Anthopleura
What anemone species is capable of swimming away from predatory starfish?
Stomphia
Colonial corals have what 2 sources of food?
plankton & zooxanthallae/zoochlorellae
What is used in corals when competing w/another coral colony over space?
mesenterial filaments
What are the four classes of Phylum Cnidaria?
Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Cubozoa, Anthozoa
What class of phylum cnidaria includes hydras?
Class hydrozoa
What class of phylum cnidaria includes hydroids?
Class hydrozoa
What class of phylum cnidaria includes siphonophores?
Class hydrozoa
What are the 3 structural types of phylum cnidaria?
1-polypoid, 2-medusoid, 3-both at diff. times
What are the 5 epidermis cells of hydrozoans?
1-epitheliomuscular, 2-interstitial, 3-cnidocytes, 4-mucus, 5-receptor & nerve cells
What cells in the epidermis house nematocysts of hydrozoans?
cnidocytes
What cells in hydrozoans' epidermis are secreting cells?
mucus cells
What cells in hydrozoans' epidermis have neurons?
receptor & nerve cells
What cells in hydrozoans' epidermis have myofibrils & are responsible for movement?
epitheliomuscular cells
What cells in hydrozoans' epidermis give rise to gametes?
interstitial cells
In colonial hydrozoa, what happens during budding?
The bud never breaks away; it stayys on. Thus, colony is interconnected
What are 3 evolutionary tendencies of hydrozoans?
1-colonial organizations, 2-skeletal formation (As colonies increase in size, there is a need for support)3-polymorphism
What is the polyp responsible for feeding?
gastrozooids
What is the polyp responsible for reproduction?
gonozooid
What is the polyp responsible for defense?
dactylzooids
What Hydrozoan species has both hydoid & medusa reproduction?
Obelia medusa
What are the hydrozoans w/medusa form?
hydromesusae
What is a distinct feature of hydramedusae?
velum-bell projects inward
Do scyphomedusae have velums?
no
Is Physalia a jellyfish?
no
Is Physalia a solitary or colonial organism?
colonial
What class includes the characteristics: cellular mesoglea, gastrodermal cnidocytes, and asexual reproduction by strobilation?
Class Scyphozoa
Scyphozoans' filaments have what type of cells?
cnidocytes & gland cells
What does the rhopallium consist of?
2 sensory pits, statocysts, ocellus
What in the rhopallium detects chemicals?
sensory pits
What in the rhopallium detects gravity?
statocysts
What in the rhoapallium detects light?
ocellus
In the scyphozoans life cycle, scyphistoma becomes what?
strobila
Strobila is a stack of medusa saucers, known as what?
ephyra
What is a remedy for the toxins of scyphozoans?
meat tenderizer
What is a major predator of jellyfish?
Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)
What are the characteristics in order for coral reefs to survive?
water needs to be warm,(1)shallow(2)
What types of reefs are there?
Fringing, barrier & atoll
What is the name of a reef that grows on the side of islands?
fringing reef
What is the name of a reef is separated from the island by a lagoon?
barrier reef
What is the name of a reef that surrounds a lagoon?
atoll
How does coral bleaching occur?
Corals expel zooxanthelae or zoochloralae.
What are the probable causes of coral bleaching?
1-excess shade, 2-disease, 3-pollutants, 4-too much sediment in water, 5-not enough salt, 6*-high seawater temps, 7*-increased UV radiation
What is the taxonomy of sea fans & sea whips?
Phylum Cnidaria- Class Anthozoa- Subclass Alyconaria- Order Gorgonacea
What is the taxonomy of sea pens & pansies?
Phylum Cnidaria- Class Anthozoa- Subclass Alyconaria- Order Pennatulacea
what is ktene?
rows of cilia that help propel Ctenophores through the water
Which phylum has true radial symmetry?
Cnidaria
Which phylum has bi-radial symmetry?
Platyhelminthes
What phylum includes animals that are bioluminescent?
Ctenophora
What is said to be the cause of bilateral symmetry?
cephalization
What is an advantage that evolved for animals that hunt, pursue prey & those that are fast enough to escape predators?
cephalization
Which phylum has radial symmetry?
Cnidaria
What are the phases of the life cycle of a scyphozoan?
1-egg, 2-planula, 3-scyphistoma, 4-strobila, 5-ephyra (young medusa), 6-adult medusa
What are the phases of the life cycle of a scyphozoan?
1-egg, 2-planula, 3-scyphistoma, 4-strobila, 5-ephyra (young medusa), 6-adult medusa
What is special about Cassiopea? and how does it feed?
"upside-down" jellyfish; feeds by 1-zooplankton crawl over them or 2-uses photosynthetic byproducts as food from zooxanthellae
What is the life cycle of Obelia?
alternating sexual/asexual generations.


Asexual genderless polyp colony produces free-swimming male/female medusae that reproduce sexually to form a planula that eventually forms into a new generation of polyps by asexual budding.