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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Volcanic island chains
islands formed by moving plates over errupting volcanoes
fossils of micro organisms found in sediment on the sea floor you can tell the relative age of the sediments
fracture zones
elonged zone of unusuably ireegular topography of the ocean floor characterized by seamounts, steep-sided or asymmetrical ridges, trough, or long step slopes
subduction zone
plane decending away from a trench separating a sinking oceanic plate from an overriding plate usually associtated with trenches and active volcanoes

lithosphere sinks into the mantle and is resorbed trenches get deeper
under the lithospehere and in the upper layer of the mantle
250kilo below continents
earth's rigid outer layer
50-100 kilo thick
floats in asthenosphere
the amoutn of heat needed to heat one gram of water one degree celcius
Latent Heat
the energy required to break a bond
ice becomes less dess with increasing temperature
and density is affected by temperature

ration between mass and volume
the amount of salt in grams dissolved in one kilogram in seawater
hydrogen bonds
occur when two water molecules share the same hydrogen atom
phase change
when water becomes solid or gas
polar molecules
the charge on the molecules are zero however the structure causes it to behave as it had a positive side and a negative side
5 remarkable properties of water
second highest heat capacity-absorbes heat the best

latent heat of fusion-the temperature at which water freezes

latent heat of evaporation-heat at which it evaporates

surface tension-highest of all liquids

dissolving power-disolves most substances and in greater quantity than any other liquid

transperancy- very see through
oxygen molecules have 3 electron pairs because the hydrogen bonds are uneven
what happens when salt dissolves in water
bonds in atoms and molecules break

because the interaction with crystal lattices and water molecules
melting point of water
0 degrees celicus
measure of heat
why do hydrogen bonds raise the boiling point of water
because the bonds are very strong which requires more heat to break the bonds
what is the extra heat that is needed to break all of the hydrogen bonds of liquid water and change it into steam called? what's its value?
latent heat
539 cal
is heat gained or lost when condensation occurs
heat is lost because the gas is becoming a liquid meaning it has to decrease in temperature
as ice melts what happens to the temperature of the slurry until all of the ice is gone?
it just stays at 0
at normal pressures how hot can boiling water be?
it stays at 100degrees celicius until all the water evaporates
how many calories are required to change 1 gram of water to steam
540 degrees
why is the latent heat of evaporation greater than the latent heat of melting
becuase when ice melts only some of the hydrogen bonds are broken
when water evaporates, all the hydrogen bonds are broken
at what temperature at it's greater density
3.98 degrees celcius
what are the major elements found in sea water
chloride and sodium
there are many others such as sulfate, magnesium, calcium, and potassium
geostrophic currents
current resulting from the balance between gravitational forces and the coriolis effect
deeper you go the higher density it gets
shells, skeletons,
particles precepitated from solution and water
composed of mineral grains
particles from outerspace
what factors influence the type of sediments found in an area
the size of the particle
orgANisms that eat them
whether or not they are in a river
describe how surface area size and density can affect the settling rate of a particle
the heavier it is, sinks faster