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19 Cards in this Set

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international treaties and their limitations
many treaties are vague and need to be clarified,

having limitations b/c pollution is mobile..........

Fluidity: The problem moves (pollution is transported by currents, winds, ships; overfishing in one area depletes stocks in another).
• Mobility: The object of protection moves (seawater moves, many marine species are migratory).
• Terrestrial/Marine Interactions: Ocean ecosystems are vulnerable to land-based pollution.
• Political Borders: Political jurisdictions overlap across ecosystems or habitats; international cooperation is often required, especially on the high seas.
London Convention (1972) and 1996 Protocol*
controls dumping in the high seas.

1993 a new ban agreed upon on dumping or incineration of all industrial waste and all radioactive waste disposal at sea. These new regulations were ammended to the London Convention and took effect in 1996.

London Convention Protocol 1996 entered into force in March 2006. Now, only material that is explicitly permitted by the Convention can be disposed of at sea.
MARPOL (1973/1978)
One of the first international treaties on ocean conservation was The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

MARPOL entered into force in 1983 and consequently oil pollution from ships was reduced by 60% within 10 years.
• The Treaty has six Annexes that specify complicated regulations for minimizing pollution from normal shipping operations. Annexes I and II are mandatory, however III – VI are voluntary. Annex VI which regulates air pollution from ships is not yet inforce.
Annex I: Oil Pollution (oil tankers and routine operations all ships)
Annex II: Noxious liquid substances (primarily chemical tankers)
Annex III: Hazardous substances in packaged form
Annex IV: Sewage
Annex V: Garbage
Annex VI: Air pollution
Greenpeace
launced a campaign against ocean dumping in the 1970s that lead to a 1983 moratorium on all dumping of radioactive waste at sea (low level radioactive waste was permitted under London Convention).
UNEP
UN environmental programme

UNEP’s Land-based Pollutants of Major Concern: Sewage is number one, followed by heavy metals, POPs, radioactive nucleides, oil/hydrocarbons, litter, nutrients, and sediment. (see marine pollution table)

In 1995, 108 countries agreed to UNEP’s Global Program of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities (GPA). This is a “framework for action,” a good start but not a binding international treaty.
Global Programme of Action (IUCN 1995)
only intergovernmental programme that addresses the inter-linkages between freshwater and the coastal environment

* major goal is to stop pollution coming from coastal lands
Clean Water Act (1972)
act established the symbolic goals of eliminating releases to water of toxic amounts of toxic substances, eliminating additional water pollution by 1985, and ensuring that surface waters would meet standards necessary for human sports and recreation by 1983

- since being implemented pollution has drastically decreased
Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (1972)
originally authorized the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate ocean dumping of industrial wastes, sewage sludge, and other wastes through a permit program. A prohibition on medical waste was enacted in 1988.
National Marine Sanctuaries*
protected marine ecosystem within U.S. waters. Currently there are 13 sanctuaries, which are administered by the National Marine Sanctuaries Program, a division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The program began after an oil spill off California in 1969 brought the plight of marine ecosystems to national attention. Congress responded in 1972 with the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act which allowed for the creation of marine sanctuaries.
US Commission on Ocean Policy
created "An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century," for GW

GW wants
1) to promote deep-sea coral conservatoin
2) sustainable fisheries
3) advance offshore aquaculture
4) support offshore energy development
Pew Commission on Ocean Policy
a private foundation-funded organization seeking to stimulate dialogue on policies needed to restore and protect marine resources in U.S. waters

defines overfishing as a level or rate of fishing mortality that reduces the long-term capacity of a marine population (that is, an identifiable separate group within a species) to produce maximum sustainable yield on a continuing basis.

Into policy solutions.
California Marine Life Protection Act (1999)*
mandates that Californians create a functionally connected system of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves- ocean areas free from fishing, mining, and other harmful activities- to conserve specific ocean ecosystems intact
California Ocean Protection Act (2004)
creates the California Ocean Protection Council- a body whose purpose is to "help coordinate and improve the protection and management of California's ocean and coastal resources."

All encommpassing body instead of numerous organizations
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)*
• Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a widely practiced approach to marine conservation, especially popular with national governments and international funding agencies. Leading promoters are the IUCN, the GBRMPA, and more recently the US federal government.

• A marine protected area is “any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by Federal, State, territorial, tribal, or other local laws to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.”

• There are over 2,000 marine protected areas in the world and 300 in the US. However, there are many different levels of protection, from strict reserves to multi-use MPAs. Effectiveness of enforcement also varies widely.

• MPAs are categorized by their conservation focus, level of protection, and ecological scale of protection. [see MPA Classification System]

• “Marine parks” are created to support tourism, marine reserves to regenerate over-exploited areas and protect habitat, muliple use MPAs try to support both coservation and economic use. All types can create conflicts among different groups of resource users
multiple use MPAs*
attempts to balance conservation with economic use by permitting some productive activities to continue (including fishing, shipping, mining, and tourism).

• This is usually accomplished by zoning certain areas for specific uses (e.g. strict reserves, national parks, research zones, and general use zones).
zoning*
designating certain areas for specific uses (e.g. strict reserves, national parks, research zones, and general use zones).
no-take marine reserves*
allow fish stocks to regenerate by prohibiting fishing

• Marine reserves only control what goes on inside their boundaries.
• Only species that do not migrate in and out of the reserve are protected from fishing.
spill-over effect*
Once stocks regenerate, fish are expected to “spill over” into adjacent areas where fishing is permitted.

There is very little scientific evidence that spill-over effects are sufficient to replenish nearby fisheries.
Soufriere Marine Management Area (SMMA)
St. Lucia

Artisan fishers got fucked up the ass