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61 Cards in this Set

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What is anatomy?
the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
What is physiology?
the study of the functions of the body parts
What is gross anatomy?
the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye
What is regional anatomy?
A subset of gross anatomy. When all the structures of a particular region (muscles, bones, nerves, etc) are studied simultaneously.
What is surface anatomy?
a subset of gross anatomy. When all the internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface are studied.
What is systemic anatomy?
a subset of gross anatomy. When the body is studied system by system.
What is microscopic anatomy?
studies structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye; usually uses a type of microscope.
What is cytology?
a subset of microscopic anatomy. studies cells.
What is histology?
a subset of microscopic anatomy. studies tiessues.
What is developmental anatomy?
traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout an organism's lifespan.
What is embryology?
A subdivision of developmental anatomy that involves changes in the body before birth.
How is physiology generally subdivided?
considers the operation of specific organ systems
What is renal physiology?
concerned with kidney function and urine production
What is neurophysiology?
concerned with the workings of the nervous system
What is cardiovascular physiology?
concerned with the operation of the heard and blood vessels
What is physiology often focused on?
molecular and cellular events
How are anatomy and physiology related?
They are inseparable; function is dependent on and reflective of structure. The form of a structure relates to its function.
What is the simplest level of structural organization in the body?
the chemical level (involves atoms and molecules)
What is the second level of structural organization in the body?
cellular level (involves organelles and cells)
What is the third level of structural organization in the body?
tissue level (involves epithelium, muscle, connective, and nervous tissue)
What is the fourth level of structural organization in the body?
organ
Define an organ
group of tissues working together
define a cell
smallest unit of living thing
define tissue
group of similar cells that have a common function
What is an organ system?
a group of organs working together to accomplish a specific task
Put these in order from simplest level of structural organization to most complex:

organ, tissue, cell, molecule, organ system, organism, atom, organelle
atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
What are the six necessary life functions?
1. maintaining boundaries between internal and external environments
2. responsiveness(irritability),
3. movement
4. metabolism
5. growth
6. reproduction
What does the plasma membrane do?
surrounds each cell, helps maintain boundaries between internal and external environment
What organ is involved in maintaining boundaries between internal and external environments?
the skin
What is responsiveness?
the ability to sense and respond to stimuli
What is another term for irritability?
responsiveness
What are the two types of movement?
internal and external
What is an example of external movement?
when your skeletal muscle moves, your arm moves
What is an example of internal movement?
blood flow
What is metabolism?
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body, including respiration, digestion and excretion
What is growth?
increase in the size of an organism
What is reproduction?
cellular division for growth or repair and/or production of offspring
What are our survival needs?
1. nutrients
2. oxygen
3. water
4. normal body temperature
5. appropriate atmospheric pressure
What are nutrients?
- chemicals for energy and cell building
- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals
What is oxygen essential for?
energy release (ATP production)
What is water the site for?
chemical reactions
What is water the medium for?
a fluid medium for secretions and excretions
Body temperature affects the _______ of chemical reactions.
rate
Why is appropriate atmospheric pressure necessary?
For proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs.
What is homeostasis?
- the ability of the body to maintain a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes

- a dynamic state of equilibrium and balance
What organ systems are most involved in homeostatic control?
nervous and endocrine
Homeostatic control mechanisms involve continuous motoring and regulation of many _________.
factors/variables
What are the three major components of a control mechanism?
1. receptor/sensor
2. control center
3. effector
Describe the steps that occurs once there is "imbalance" in terms of homeostasis.
1. stimulus produces a change in variable (example :cold = stimulus, variable = temperature).

2. the receptor detects the change (receptor = nerve endings)

3. information is sent along afferent pathway to control center (impulse = message sent to control center = brain).

4. output: information sent along efferent pathway to effector (brain tells skeletal muscles that body is cold and skeletal muscles should shiver)

5. response: the effector takes action. the response feeds back to reduce the effect of the stimulus and returns varable to homeostatic level (skeletal muscles begin to shiver, body temperature rises).
Describe what the receptor/sensor does in terms of homeostatic control.
- monitors the environment
- responds to the stimuli
- relays signal via afferent pathway
What is an afferent pathway?
sensory message, going to the cortex
What is an efferent pathway?
motor, indicates the brain telling the body to do something
What is the control center's function in terms of homeostatic control?
- determines the set point at which the variable is maintained

- receives input from the receptor

- determines the appropriate response

- efferent pathway
What is the effector's function in terms of homeostatic control?
1. receives output from the control center.

2. provides the means to respond

3. response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback)
How is feedback defined?
response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus
What is most common, negative or positive feedback?
negative feedback
How does negative feedback cause the variable to change?
In a way that opposes the initial change!
How does positive feedback cause the variable to change?
In a way that enhances the initial change!

- may exhibit a cascade/amplifying effect
What does positive feedback usually control?
infrequent events
What are two examples of positive feedback in the body?
1. enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin

2. platelet plug formation and blood clotting
What is the standard anatomical position?
- body erect

- feet slightly apart

- palms face forward, thumbs point away from the body

- Right and left refer to the person being observed