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27 Cards in this Set

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four key land war battles
wairau incident 1843
northern war 1845
taranaki 1860
waikato 1863
wairau incident
1843
wakefield (NZ company) tried to assert ownership of wairau, te rauparaha was chief warrior, te rangihaeta's wife killed when musket accidentally went off, maori killed brigade even though they asked for mercy
northern war
1845
fitzroy called for troops to go after hone heke after he cut down the flagpole
colonel despard led troops, beaten by heke at battle of ohaeawai
grey replaced fitzroy as governor, beat heke at battle of ruapekapeka (kawiti defended pa in this battle)
taranaki
1860
wiremu kingi, brown, and von tempsky
waitara purchase
waikato
1863
battles of meremere, rangiriri, orakau, gate pa
governor grey used land wars to assert dominion over the maori king (wherowhero)
beginning of maori refusal to sell land
1860s land acts
1862 Native Land Act
1863 NZ Settlements Act
1864 Native Reserves Act
1865 Native Land Amendment Act
Native Land Act
1862
established Native Land Court, ascertain Native title to land and facilitate individualization of title, abolished pre-emption
NZ Settlements Act
1863
3 million acres of Maori land confiscated
Native Reserves Act
1864
land commissioner allocated maori reserve land to pakeha settlers on long term leases
Native Land Amendment Act
1865
probably most destructive act ever passed, breakdown of communally owned land
any interested party could apply to the court for title to land, court obligated to list 10 owners on each title
early maori prophetic movements
prophets arose as new leaders to unify the tribes against their common oppressor
pan-tribal - different from traditional leadership
pai marire, te kooti, te whiti
pai marire
arose in taranaki following land wars, led by haumene
pan-maori identity based on religion needed to overcome pakeha
based on visit from gabriel
"strong arm" faction was hauhau movement, rebellion in 1864 against british soldiers
te kooti
fought for crown against hauhau rebellion, arrested after being accused of being a hauhau sympathizer
received a vision in prison to establish new church to save the maori
ringatu church
gov. viewed as outlaw, longest manhunt in NZ history
te whiti
started in taranaki
taught passive resistance, pacifism, and separation of the races (as opposed to previous prophets who practiced guerrilla warfare)
established village, land was eventually confiscated, village destroyed and te whiti put in jail
new prophets
rua kenana and ratana
rua kenana
received vision from christ, began practicing faith healing
persuaded followers to give up material possessions, sold 40 acres collectively
used money from sale to build new jerusalem, prosperity
arrested and put in jail, trial bankrupted community
ratana
received vision in 1918 that he was to become the mangai or mouthpiece of god
built temple at ratana pa in 1920, 1921 went on mission to northland and increased followers
2 key features of movement (not faith) - pan-maori, focus on ratifying treaty of waitangi
put up 4 ratana candidates to contest the 4 quarters (maori seats in parliament given in 1867 maori representation act)
agreement with labour leader to align the 4 quarters with labour
3 of the 4 seats delivered to labour in 1935, last one in 1943 off of apirana ngata
new maori leadership
traditionally leadership based on whakapapa and primogeniture, new leaders emerged because of achievement in pakeha world
maui pomare, peter buck, apirana ngata
maui pomare
1st maori medical doctor, maori health officer in 1900
had tohunga suppression act passed in 1907 - wanted to introduce maori to modern way of thinking about sickness
entered parliament in 1911 to help regain land, made mistake of putting it back in individual title
tried to persuade the waikato in 1918 to enlist in war, they did whakapohane (greatest insult) to him
peter buck
maori health officer after pomare, elected to parliament in 1909, joined pioneer batallion in 1915
apirana ngata
schooled at te aute college under anglican churchman named thornton
attended canterbury uni, became first maori lawyer
elected to parliament in 1905, held position until 1943
used treasury money to buy land for maori, accused of nepotism
revived interest in maori arts and crafts, language, and culture - established school of maori arts in 1928 and brought carving back
advocated change in maori education
established maori battalion after WWII broke out
hunn report 1960
aims and policies of maori affairs department
maori classified into 3 groups - assimilated, integrated, primitive
object was to eliminate primitive group by raising to integrated, then integrated would have a choice to become assimilated or not
maori activism
in 60s/70s - pakeha educated, urban born and raised, some female leadership, affiliation with black power and civil rights movements
nga tamatoa, land march, he taua, maranga mai
culminated in resignation of matiu rata (minister of maori affairs) from the labour party in 1979 which signaled divorce between labour party and ratana movement
nga tamatoa
"young ones"
emerged from 1970 young maori leaders conference at uni of auckland
protests at waitangi on waitangi day, petition regarding recognition and protection of maori language and for it to be taught in schools
land march
1975
whina cooper
protested maori land loss
50,000 people marched to parliament
he taua
uni of auckland engineering students performed offensive haka for many years
1979 group of maori physically stopped this from happening
maranga mai
1980
group toured with play dramatizing maori grievances
hostile pakeha reaction