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75 Cards in this Set

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What are the six challenges to being a star manager?
1.Managing for competitive advantage:staying ahead of rivals.
2. Managing for diversity
3.Managing for globalization
4.Managing for Info Technology
5.Managing for Ethical Standards
6. Managing fro your own hapiness and life goals.
What is the classical viewpoint of management?
Finding ways to manage work more efficiently-assumes people are rational** two branches: scientific, administrative
Who was Frederick Taylor and what were his ideas.
"the father of scientific management"- proponent of scientific management. Believed managers could eliminate "soldiering" (deliberate working at less than full capacity) by applying his four principles.
What were Taylors four principles?
1. Evaluate a task by scientifically studying each part of the task.
2. Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the task.
3. Give workers the training and incentives to do the task with proper work methods.
4. Use scientific principles to plan the work methods and ease the way for workers to do their jobs.
What is scientific management?
emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers. Two of its cheif proponents were Frederick Taylor and Frank and Lilllian Gilbreth
What did Taylor base his system on and what two things did he institute at the steel company?
His system was based on motion studies and he trained workers to use the methods of their best-performing co-workers (best practice) and also suggested instituting a differential rate system.
What is the behavioral view point?
emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward acheivement.
What is the Hawthorne affect and who discovered it?
Elton Mayo discovered the Hawthorne affect. This theory was that employees worked harder if they recieved added attention, if they thought that managers cared about their welfare and that supervisors paid special attention to them. This lead to the "human relations movement"
What are the three main perspectives on motivation?
need based, process, and reinforcement
What is the need based perspectives and what are the three theories?
aka content perspectives, are theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people.
1. Maslows hierarchy of needs theory
2.Herzberg's two-factor theory
3. McClelland's acquired needs theory
What are the five levels of Maslows Hierarchy of needs?
1.Physiological 2. Safety 3. Belongingness 4. Esteem 5. Self Actualization
What is Herzberg's two factor theory?
proposed that work satisfaction and disatisfaction arise from two different factors-hygeine factors and motivating factors
hygeine factors-lower level needs (pay, security, working conditions, interpersonal relationships, company policy supervisors)-what will make people disatisfied
motivating factors-higher level needs-what makes my people "satisfied" (achievement, recognition, the work itself, repsonsibility, advancement and growth).
How should the two factor theory be used?
first elimnate disatisfaction then work on spurring motivation by providing opportunities
What is the acquired needs theory and who proposed?
states the three needs -achievement, affiliation, and power- are major motives determining people's behavior in the workplace. McClelland believed that we were not born with our needs, rather we learn them from the culture. David McClelland created this theory.
What are two forms of the need for power?
personal power- desire to dominate others, and involves manipulating people for one's own gratification.
institutional power- characteristics of top managers and leaders. The need to solve problems that further the organization.
What are process perspectives?
concerned with the thought processes by which people decide how to act.
What is the expectancy theory and who created it?
suggests that people are motivated by two things; 1. how much they want something and 2. how likely they think they are to get it. Created by Victor Vroom
What are the three elements of the expectancy theory?
expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
What is expectancy?
"Will I be able to perform at the desired level on a task?"-the belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance. Aka effort-to-performance expectancy. You believe that your efforts will matter.
What is Instrumentality?
"What outcome will I receive if I perform at this level?"-the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the outcome desired. This is called the performance-to-reward expectancy. You believe if you can achieve your goals, the outcome will be worthwhile.
What is Valence?
"How much do I want the outcome?" Valence is value, the importance a worker assigns to the possible outcome or reward.
Under the expectancy theory, in order for motivation to be high, what else must be high?
All three elements...expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. If any element is low you will not be motivated.
What is the equity theory?
focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others. Developed by psychologist Stacy Adams.
What are the three things analyzed in the equity theory?
Inputs-time, effort, training, experience, intelligence, creativity, seniority, status, Outputs-pay, bonuses, rewards, praise, recognition, promotions, perquisites, , and Comparison-ratio of their own outcomes to unputs against the ratio of someone else's outcomes to inputs
What is the reinforcement theory?
suggests behavior will be repeated if it has positive consequences and won't be if it has negative consequences
The use of reinforcement theory to change human behavior is called
Behavior modification
What is negative reinforcement?
the removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior
What is positive reinforcement?
The use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior.
What is extinction?
the withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for desirable behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future.
What is punishement?
is the application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior.
What is job design?
1. the division of an organization's work that amon its employees and 2. the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance. Two ways-1-fitting people to jobs (traditional) 2- fitting jobs to people (modern)
What is job simplification?
the process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs.
What is job enlargement (fitting jobs to people)?
consists of increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation.
What is job enrichement (fitting jobs to people)?
consists of building into a job such motivating factors as responsibility, achievement, recognition, stimulating work, and advancement. Giving jobs with more responsibility (called vertically loading as opposed to horizantally loading)
What does Gallop organization poll find that employees value what over monetary benefits?
Having caring bosses.
What is pay for performance?
aka merit pay; bases pay on results ie. piece rate, percentage of sales
What are bonuses?
cash awards given to employees who achieve specific performance objectives
What is profit sharing?
the distribution to employees of a percentage of the company's profit.
What is gain sharing?
the distribution of savings or "gains" to groups of employees who reduced costs and increased measurable prodcutivity.
What are stock options?
certain employees are given the right to buy stock at a future date for a discounted price.
What is pay for knowledge?
aka skill-based pay; ties employee pay to the number of job-relevant skills or academic degrees they earn.
What is leadership?
The ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals. In an effective organization- leadership is present at all levels.
What is the difference between management and leadership?
management is about coping with complexity. Leadership is about coping with change.
What are the three ways of managing complexity?
1.What needs to be done-planning and budgeting 2. Creating arrangements of people to accomplish an agenda-organizing and staffing. 3. Ensuring people do their jobs-controlling and problem solving
What are three ways that leadership copers with change?
1. Setting direction 2. Creating arrangements of people to accomplish and agenda-aligning people 3. Ensuring people do their jobs- motivating and inspiring
What is authority?
the right to to perform or command; comes with the job
What is power?
the extent to which a person is able to influence other so they respond to orders.
What is personalized power?
power directed at helping oneself.
What is socialized power?
power directed at helping others.
What are the five sources of power that leaders may draw on?
legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, and referent.
Legitimate power
Influencing behavior because of one's formal position
Reward Power
Influencing behavior by promising or giving rewards
Coercive Power
influencing behavior by threatening or giving punishement
Expert Power
influencing behavior because of one's expertise
Referent Power
influencing behavior because of one's personal attraction - personality, attitudes, or background.
What are the five approaches to leadership?
1. Trait approaches 2. Behavorial approaches 3. Contingency approaches 4. Full-range approach 5. Five addiational perspectives
What to trait approaches attempt to?
identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders.
what are the five traits that Kouzes found a credible leader should have (according to survey)?
honest, competent, forward-looking, inspiring, and intelligent.
What are the qualities that Brossidy looks for in when evaluating perspective employees.
ability to execute, a career runway, team orientation, multiple experiences.
What is emotional intelligence?
the ability to cope, empathize with others, and be self motivated
What are the traits of EI
self awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management
What are the major traits that women have to make them better leaders
motivating others, fostering communication, prodcuing high quality work, and listening to others.
What is behavioral leadership approaches?
attempts to determine the distinctive styles used by effective leaders...task orientation vs. people orientation
What is the contingency approach to leadership?
belief that effective leadership behavior depends on the situation at hand. Task related vs. relationship related
Fiedler's 3 dimensions of situational control
leader-member relations, task structure, and position power
Leader-member relations
do my subordinates accept me as a leader?
Task structure
Do my subordinates perform unambiguous easily, understood tasks?
Position power
Do I have power to reward and punish?
What is charisma?
a form of interpersonal attraction that inspires acceptance and support. Such leaders inspire motivation by offering a vision.
What are the claims made in support of team work?
increase productivity, increases speed, reduces costs, improves quality, reduces destructive internal competition, and improves workplace cohesiveness.
What is a group?
collection of people performing as individuals
What is a team?
collection of people with common commitment
what is a formal group?
a group established to do something productive for the organization and is headed by a leader
What is an informal group?
a group formed by people seeking friendship and has no officially appointed leader, alhtough a leader may emerge from the membership.
What are the aspects of self managed teams?
Workers are trained to do all or most of the jobs in a work unit, have no direct supervisor, and do their own day to day supervision.