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37 Cards in this Set

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neutralizer
A situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors
substitute
A situational variable that makes a leadership style unnecessary or redundant
Transactional leader
a leader who lcaifies subordinates' role and task requirements, initiates structure, provides rewards, and displays consideration for subordinates
charasmatic leader
A leader who has the abolity to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance
transformational leader
A leader distinguished by a special abililty to bring about innovation and change
expert power
power that stems from special knowledge of or skill in the tasks performed by subordinates
referent power
power that results from characteristics that command subordiantes' identification with, respect and admiration for, and desre to emulate the leader
motivation
The arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior
Intrinsic reward
The satisfaction received in the process of performing an action
extrinsic reward
a reward given by another person
physiological needs (most basic human needs, basic conditions and salary to survive), Safety needs (safe and secure environment, fringe benefit, safe job, and security), Belongingness needs (need to be accepted by one's peers, good relationship with co-workers, group work), esteem needs ( desire for a positive self image, recognition and statue), self actualization needs (the need for self fulfillment (highest needs) to grow and be creative
Hierarchy of needs
equity theory
a process theory that focuses on individuals' perceptions of how fairly they are treated related to others
change inputs, change outcome, distort perceptions, leave the job
common methods for reducing perceived inequity
expectancy theory
a process theory that proposses that motivation depends on individuals' expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards
job design
the application of motivational theories to the structure of work fro improving productivity and satisfaction
job simplification
a job design whose purpose is to improve task efficiency by reducing the number of tasks a single person must do
job rotation
a job design that systematically moves employees from one job to anohter to provide them with variety and stimulation
job enlargement
a job design that combines a series of tasks into one new, broader job to give employees variety and challenge
job enrichment
a job design that incorporates achievement, recognition, and other high-level motivators into the work
communication
the process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior
channel richness
The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode
nonverbal communication
A communication transmitted through actions and behaviors rather then through words
listening
The skill of receieving messages to accurately grasp facts and feelings to interpret the genuine meaning
listen actively, find areas of interest, resist distractions, capitalize on the fact that though is faster, be responsive, judge content not delivery, hold one's fire, listen for ideas, work at listening, excercise one's mind
10 keys to effective listening
organizational control
the systematic process through which managers regulate organizational activites to make them consistent with expectations established in plans, targets, and standards of performance
feedforward control
control that focuses on human, material, and financial resources flowing into organization: also called preliminary or preventive control
concurrent control
control that consists of monitoring ongoing activities to ensure that they are consistent with standards
feedback control
Control that focuses on the organization's outputs; also called postaction or output control
expense budget
a budget that outlines the anticipated and actual expenses for a responsibility center
revenue budget
a budget that identifies the forecasted and actual revenues of the organization
cash budget
a budget that estimates and reports cash flows on a daily or weekly basis to ensure that the compnay has sufficient cash to meet its obligations
captial budget
a budget that plans and reports investments in major assets to be depreciated over several years
top down budgeting
a budgeting process in which middle and lower level managers set departmental budget targets in accordance with overall comany revenues and expenditures sepcified by top management
bottom up budgeting
a budgeting process in which lowr level managers budget their departments' resource needs and pass them up to top management for approval
balance sheet
a financial statement that shows the firms financial position with respect to assets and liabilites at a specific point in time
income statement
a financial statment that summarizes the firms financial performance for a given time interval; sometimes called a profit-and-loss statement
open book management
sharing financial information and results with all employees in the organization