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120 Cards in this Set

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These are products that require a great deal of learning and knowledge to produce
Knowledge-and informtion-intense products
Organization where nearly all significant business processes and relationships with customers suppliers, and employees are digitally enabled, and key corporate assets are managed through digital means.
digital firm
The unique ways in which organizations coordinate and organize work activities, information, and knowledge to produce a product or service.
business processes
Interrelated components working together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis,and visualization in an organization.
information system
Data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings.
information
Steams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use.
data
The capture or collection of raw data from within the organization or its external environment for processing in an information system.
input
The conversion, manipulation, and analysis of raw input into a form that is more meaningful to humans.
processing
The distribution of processes information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used.
output
Output that is returned to the appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct input.
feedback
Information systems that rely on computer hardware and software for processing and disseminating information.
computer-based information systems (CBIS)
Broad-based understanding of information systems that includes behavioral knowledge about organizations and individuals using information systems as well as techinical knowledge about computers.
information systems literacy
Knowledge about information technology, focusing on understanding how computer-based technologies work.
computer literacy
Specialized tasks performed in a business organization including sales and marketing, manufacturing and production, finance and accounting, and human resources.
business functions
Formal rules for accomplishing tasks that have been developed to cope with expected situations.
standard operating procedures (SOPs)
People, such as engineers or architect, who design products or services and create knowledge for the organization.
knowledge workers
People, such as secretaries or bookkeepers, who process the organization's paperwork
data workers
People who actually produce the products or services of the organization.
production or service workers
People occuping the topmost hierarchy in an organization who are responsible for making long-range dicisions.
senior managers
People in the middle of the organizational hierarchy who are responsible for carrying out the plans and goals of senior management.
middle managers
People who monitor the day-to day activities of the organization
operational managers
Physical equipment used for input, processing and output activities in an information system.
computer hardware
Detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the work of computer hardware components in an information system.
computer software
Physical media and software governing the storage and organization of data for use in an information system.
storage technology
Physical devices and software that link various computer harware components and transfer data from one physical location to another.
communications technology
the linking of two or more computers to share data or resources, such as a printer.
network
Computer hardware, software, data, storage technology, and networks providing a protfolio of shared IT resources for the organization.
information technology (IT) infrastructure
Additional assets required to derive value from a primary investment.
complementary assets
Investments in organization and management, such as new business processes, management behavior, organizational culture, or training.
organizational and management captial
The study of information systems focusing on their use in business and management.
management information systems (MIS)
International network of networks that is a collection of hundreds of thousands of private and public networks
Internet
A system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information in a networked environment.
World Wide Web
All of the World Wide Web pages maintained by an orgaization or an individual
Web site
The capacity to offer individually tailored products or services using mass production resources.
mass customization
Information systems that automate the flow of information across organizational boundaries and link a company to its customers, distributors, or suppliers.
interorganizational systems
A marketplace that is created by computer and communication technologies that link many buyers and sellers.
digital market
The process of buying and selling goods and services electronically involving transactions using the Internet, networks, and other digital technologies.
electronic commerce (e-commerce)
An internal network based on Internet and World Wide Web technology and standards.
intranet
Private intranet that is accessible to authorized outsiders.
extranet
The use of Internet and digital technology to execute all the business processes in the enterprise. Includes e-commerce as well as processes for the internal management of the firm and for coordination with suppliers and other business partners.
electronic business (e-business)
Use of the Internet and related technologies to digitally enable government and public sector agencies' relationships with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.
e-government
The particular design that information technology takes in a specific organization to achieve selected goals or functions.
information architecture
Information systems that monitor the elementary activities and transactions of the organization.
operational-level systems
Information systems that support the monitoring, controlling, decision making, and adminstrative activities of middle managers.
management-level systems
Information systems that support the long-rang planning activities of senior management
strategic-level systems
Computerized systems that perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business; they serve the organization's operational level.
transaction processing systems (TPS)
Information systems at the management level of an organization that serve the functions of planning, controlling, and decision making by providing routine summary and exception reports
management information systems (MIS)
Information systems at the organization's management level that combine data and sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support semistructured and unstructured decision making.
decision-support systems (DSS)
Information systems at the organization's strategic level designed to address unstructured decision making through advanced graphics and communications.
executive support systems (ESS)
Systems that help the firm identify customers for the firm's products or services, develop products and services to meet customers' needs, promote these products and services, sell the products and services, and provide ongoing customer support.
sales and marketing information systems
Systems that keep track of the firm's financial assets and fund flows
finance and accounting information systems
Systems that maintain employee records; track employee skills, job performance, and training; and support planning for employee compensation and career development
human resources information systems
Systems that can coordinate activities, decisions, and knowledge across many different functions, levels, and business units in a firm. Include enterprise systems, supply chain management systems, customer relationship management systems, and knowledge management systems.
enterprise applications
Integrated enterprise-wide information systems that coordinate key internal processes of the firm.
enterprise systems
Information systems that automate the flow of information between a firm and its suppliers in order to optimize the planning, sourcing, manufacturing, and delivery of products and services.
supply chain management systems
Close linkage and coordination of cross-functional and interenterprise business processes involved in buying, making, and moving a product.
supply chain management
Network of organizations and business processes for procuring materials, tranforming raw materials into intermediate and finished products, and distributing the finished products to customers
supply chain
The return of items from buyers to sellers in a supply chain.
reverse logistics
The use of digital technologies to enable multiple organizations to collaboratively design, develop, build, and manage products through their lifecycles.
collaborative commerce
Firms collaborating with their suppliers and buyers to formulate demand forecasts, develop production plans, and coordinate shipping, warehousing, and stocking activities.
collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR)
Web-enabled networks linking systems of multiple firms in an industry for the coordination of transorganizational business processes.
private industrial networks
Business and technology discipline that uses information systems to coordinate all of the business processes surrounding the firm's interactions with its customers in sales, marketing, and service.
customer relationship management (CRM)
Information systems that track all of the ways in which a company interacts with its customers and analyze these interactions to optimize revenue, profitability, customer satisfaction, and customer retention.
customer relationship management systems
Systems that support the creation, caapture, storage, and dissemination of firm expertise and knowledge.
knowledge management systems
Form of business organization characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of origin.
domestic exporter
Form of business organization that concentrated financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing production, sales, and marketing operations to units in other countries
multinational
Form of business organization in which a product is createdk designed, financed, and initally produced in the home country, but for product-specific reasons relies heavily on foreign personnel for futther production, marketing, and human resources.
franchiser
Truly global form of business organization with no national headquarters; value-added activities are managed from a global perpective without reference to national borders, optimizing sources of supply and demand and local competitive advantage.
transnational
A stable, formal social structure that takes resources from the environment and processes them to produce outputs.
organization (technical definition)
A collection of rights, privileges, obligations, and responsibilities that are delicately balanced over a period of time through conflict and conflict resolution
organization (behavioral definition)
Formal organization with a clear-cut division of labor, abstract rules and procedures,and impartial decision making that uses technical qualifications and professionalism as a basis for promoting employees.
bureaucracy
Percise rules, procedures, and practices develped by organizations to cope with virtually all expected situations.
standard operating procedures (SOP's)
The set of fundamental assumptions about what products the organization should produce, how and where it should produce them, and for whom they should be produced.
organizational culture
The formal organizational unit that is responsible for the information systems function in the organization.
information systems department
Highly trained technical specialists
programmers
Specialists who translate business problems and requirements into information requirements and systems, acting as liaisons between the information systems department and the rest of the organization.
systems analysts
Leaders of the various specialists in the information systems department.
information systems managers
Senior manager in charge of the information systems function in the firm
chief information officer (CIO)
Representatives of departments outside the information systems group for whom applications are developed
end users
Economic theory stating that firms grow larger because they can conduct marketplace transactions internally and more economically than they can with external firms in the marketplace.
transaction cost theory
Economic theory that view the firm as a nexus of contracts among self-interested individuals who must be supervised and managed.
agency theory
Organization using networks to link people, assets, and ideas to create and distribute products and services without being limited to traditional organizational boundaries or physical locations.
virtual organization
Traditional description of management that focused on its formal functions of planning, organizing, coordinating, deciding, and controlling.
classical model of management
Descriptions of management based on behavioral scientists' obervations of what managers actually do in their jobs.
behavioral models
Expectations of the activities that managers should perform in an organization.
managerial roles
Mintzberg's classification for managerial roles where managers act as figureheads and leaders for the organization.
interpersonal roles
Mintzberg's classification for managerial roles where managers act on the nerve centers of their organizations, receiving and disseminating critical information.
informational roles
Mintzberg's classisfication for managerial roles where managers initiate activities, handle disturbances, allocate resources, and negotiate conflicts.
decisional roles
Determining the long-term objectives, resources, and policies of an organization.
strategic decision making
Monitoring how efficiently or effectively resources are used and how well operational units are performing.
management control
Deciding how to carry out specific tasks specified by upper and middle management, and establishing criteria for completion and resource allocation.
operational control
unstructured decisions?
Nonroutine decisions in which the decision maker must provide judgement, evaluation, and insights into the problem definition; there is no agreed-on procedure for making such decisions.
structured decisions?
Decisions that are repetitive, routine, and have a definite procedure for handling them.
The first of Simon's four stages of decision making, when the individual collects information to identify problems occurring in the organization.
intelligence
Simon's second stage of decision making, when the individual conceives of possible alternative solutions to a problem.
design
Simon's third stage of decision making, when the individual selects among the various solution alternatives.
choice
Simon's final stage of decision making, when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution.
implementation
Model of human behavior based on the belief that people, organizations, and nations engage in basically consistent, value-maximizing calculations.
rational model
cognitive style?
Underlying personality dispositions toward the treatment of information, selection of alternatives, and evaluation of consequences.
Systematic decision makers?
Cognitive style that describes people who approach a problem with multiple methods in an unstructured maner, using trial and error to find a solution.
Models of decision making that take into account the structural and political charateristics of an organization.
organizational models of decision making
Models of decision making where decisions are shaped by the organization's standard operating procedures (SOP'S)
bureaucratic models of decision making
Models of decision making where decisions result form competition and bargaining among the organization's interest groups and key leaders.
political models of decision making
Model of decision making that states that organizations are not rational and that decisions are solutions that become attached to problems for accidental reasons
"garbage can" model
Computer systems at any level of the organization that change goals, operations, products, services, or environmental reltionships to help the organization gain a competitive advantage.
strategic information systems
Model that highlights the primary or support activities that add a margin of value to a firm's products or services where information systems best can be applied to achieve a competitive advantage.
value chain model
Activities most directly related to the production and distribution of a firm's products or services.
primary activities
Activities that make the delivery of a firm's primary activities possible. Consist of the organization's infrastructure, human resources, technology, and procurement.
support activities
Customer-driven network of independent firms who use information technology to coordinate their value chains to collectively produce a product or service for a market.
value web
Copetitive strategy for creating brand loyalty by developing new and unique products and services that are not easily duplicated by competitors.
product differentiation
Competitive strategy for developing new market riches for specialized products or services where a business can complete in the target area better than its competitors.
focused differentiation
System that directly links consumer behavior back to distribution, production, and supply chains.
efficient customer response system
The expense a customer or company incurs in lost time and resources when changing form one supplier or system to a competing supplier or system.
switching costs
Activity at which a firm excels as a world-class leader.
core competency
Cooperative alliance formed between two or more corporations for the purpose of sharing information to gain strategic advantage.
information partnership
Model used to describe the interaction of external influences, specifically threats and opportunities, that affect an organization's strategy and ability to compete.
competitive forces model
The nature of participants in an industry and their relative bargaining power. Derives from the competitive forces and establishes the general business enviromnent in an industry and the overall profitability of doing business in that environment.
industry structure
Model of strategic systems at the industry level based on the concept of a network where adding another participant entails zero marginal costs but can create much larger marginal gains.
network economics
A movement from one level of sociotechnical system to another. Often required when adopting strategic systems that demand changes in the social and technical elements of an organization.
strategic transitions
Systems that help the firm identify customers for the firm's products or services, develop products and services to meet customers' needs, promote these products and services, sell the products and services, and provide ongoing customer support.
sales and marketing information systems