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221 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An organic organization tends to be characterized by high specialization, extensive departmentalization, narrow spans of control, high formalization, a limited information network, and little participation in decision making by low-level employees.
False
Organizational design is the organization's formal framework by which job tasks are divided, grouped, and coordinated
False
High performance work practices involve a commitment by management to improve the knowledge skills and abilities of the organization's employees, increasing employee motivation, and enhancing the retention of quality of employees.
True
A community fire department can categorically deny employment to a firefighter applicant who is confined to a wheelchair.
True
Organizational design is based on decisions about ____.
a. chain of command and span of control
b. centralization and decentralizaiton
c. work specialization and departmentalization
d. all of the above
D
Grouping activities on the basis of customer flow is ___.
a. geographical departmentalization
b. functional departmentalization
c. product departmentalization
d. process departmentalization
D
Today's competitive business environment has greatly increased the importance of what type of departmentalization?
a. process
b. customer
c. product
d. geographic
B
The theory that a person should report to only one manager is called ___.
a. responsibility factor
b. authorized line of responsibility
c. unity of command
d. chain of command
C
In organizations, the trend in recent years has been toward ___.
a. wider span of control
b. the organization's structure being based on its financial position
c. narrower span of control
d. increased chain of command
A
In recent years, there has been a movement to make organizations more flexible and responsive through ____.
a. alternative organizational structure
b. centralization
c. customer-based structure
d. decentralization
D
A(n) _____ organization is rigidly controlled and efficient.
a. horizontal
b. learning
c. organic
d. mechanistic
D
Structure is related to the size of the organization, such that larger organizations are more ____.
a. structurally weak
b. organic
c. mechanistic
d. decentralized
C
An assessment that defines the jobs and behaviors necessary to perform the job is known as a ____.
a. job specification
b. job analysis
c. job description
d. goal-oriented job defeinition
C
A list of the minimum qualifications or requirements needed by an employee to perform a job is known as a _______.
a. job analysis
b. responsibility factor list
c. job description
d. job specification
D
While ____ reaches a tremendous number of people, it also generates many unqualified candidates for jobs.
a. an advertisement
b. the internet
c. a private employment agency
d. a public employment agency
B
As a decruitment option, ___ are a temporary involuntary termination that can last from a few weeks to several years.
a. layoffs
b. early retirements
c. transfers
d. attritions
A
As a source of potential job candidates, ___ generates the best referrals, because a good referral reflects on the source of the recommendation.
a. the internet
b. advertisements
c. public employment agencies
d. employee referrals
D
Options for decruitment are ___.
a. reduced workweeks
b. attrition
c. early retirements
d. all of the above
D
If an organization makes an error in the selection process, the organization has ____.
a. hired the wrong employee
b. hired the right employee
c. not hired a good employee
d. A and C
D
___ is the proven relationship between the selection device and some relevant job selection criterion.
a. unreliability
b. responsibility
c. validity
d. reliabity
C
Change threatens the investment you've already made in the status quo.
True
One reason people resist change is that it substitutes ambiguity for uncertainty.
False
The manager's options for change essentially fall into three categories: structure, technology, and product.
False
Techniques to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships are termed organizational development.
True
In organizations, people who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process are called ____.
a. change masters
b. operations managers
c. charismatic leaders
d. change agents
D
In spurring organizational change, outside consultants are usually more ___ whereas internal managers may be more ___.
a. interested; scared
b. cautious; friendly
c. highly paid; risky
d. drastic; thoughtful
e. resistant; bold
D
According to Lewin, which of the following is the objective of refreezing?
a. directs behavior away from the status quo
b. stabilizes the new situation
c. hinders movement away from existing equilibrium
d. eliminates the need for future change
B
In the white-water rapids metaphor, change is a natural state, and managing change is ___.
a. a continual process
b. a maintenance process
c. an expected practice
d. an accepted practice
A
A company that decides to decentralize its sales procedures is managing what change category?
a. structure
b. technology
c. competitors
d. people
A
According to the textbook, an individual is likely to resist change because of all of the following reasons except ___.
a. increased productivity
b. belief that the change is not in the organization's best interest
c. concern over personal loss
d. uncertainty
A
All of the following are mentioned in the textbook as actions that managers can use to deal with resistance to change except ____.
a. participation
b. facilitation and support
c. education and communication
d. diversification
D
___ may be necessary when resistance comes from a powerful source.
a. coercion
b. education and communication
c. negotiation
d. facilitation and support
C
Initiating change involves identifying what organizational areas might need to be changed and ___.
a. hiring a consultant to confirm that the change is needed
b. discussing it with the board of directors
c. forming a committee to determine that the need for change is real
d. putting the change process in motion
D
Which of the following represents the relationship between organizational culture and change?
a. culture can never be purposely changed
b. culture and change are naturally compatible
c. culture can change in months but not weeks
d. culture tends to be resistant to change
D
Which of the following is not a favorable situational condition that may facilitate change in an organizational culture?
a. stock price sharply falls
b. the culture is weak
c. the organization is young and small
d. a dramatic crisis occurs
A
Which of the following is the last step in accomplishing organizational cultural change?
a. appoint new leadership with a new vision
b. change the selection and socialization processes and the evaluation and reward systems to support the new values
c. introduce new stories and rituals to convey new vision
d. make it clear that change is necessary to organizational survival
B
Stress, in and of itself, is ___.
a. not necessarily bad
b. harmful, especially if not managed by exercise
c. healthful in most cases
d. beneficial to those who use it
A
___ refers to the ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual associations between ideas.
a. interpretive thinking
b. innovation
c. creativity
d. imagination
C
___ is the process of taking a creative idea and turning it into a useful product, service, or method, of operation.
a. creativity
b. innovation
c. interpretive thinking
d. imagination
B
Which of the following is an example of a variable that can foster innovation?
a. organic structure
b. low ambiguity acceptance
c. few organizational resources
d. mechanistic structure
A
Which of the following is not a cultural value that supports innovation?
a. acceptance of ambiguity
b. tolerance for the impractical
c. focus on ends, not means
d. high external controls
D
Being happy at work results in employees being productive workers.
False
Employees with high self-esteem tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than low SEs.
True
People who believe that if they work hard, they will be successful would be described as having an internal locus of control.
True
In the big-five model, emotional security was positively related to job performance.
False
The goal of organizational behavior is to ____ behavior.
a. predict
b. influence
c. explain
d. all of the above
D
The four common behaviors typically studied in organizational behavior are employee productivity, absenteeism, turnover, and the attitude of ___.
a. pay satisfaction
b. individualism
c. risk taking
d. job satisfaction
D
The component of attitude that is made up of beliefs and opinions is ___.
a. cognitive
b. behavioral
c. practices
d. affective
B
The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job or actively participates in it refers to the employee's ____.
a. global commitment
b. job satisfaction
c. organizational commitment
d. job involvement
D
Which of the following is true about organizationally committed and satisfied employees?
a. much higher pay levels
b. higher rates of voluntary turnover
c. higher rates of cognitive dissonance
d. lower rates of turnover and absenteeism
D
A person who can adapt and adjust behavior to external factors would describe which of the following personality traits?
a. high risk-taking
b. low self-esteem
c. high self-monitoring
d. internal locus of control
C
Which of the following is true about high risk takers?
a. they make quicker decisions than low risk takers but have about the same level of accuracy
b. they make slower decisions than low risk takers and have a higher level of accuracy
c. they make slower decisions than low risk takers but have a lower level of accuracy
d. they make quicker decisions than low risk takers but have a lower level of accuracy
A
Emotional intelligence has been shown to be ___.
a. negatively related to job performance at all levels
b. positively related to job performance only in governmental agencies
c. positively related to job performance at all levels
d. negatively related to job performance in middle management only
C
In attribution theory, an employee who underestimates the influence of external factors and overestimates the influence of internal factors, a person is said to have ___.
a. low risk-taking
b. high risk-taking
c. self-serving bias
d. attribution error
C
By using ___, we form an impression about a person based on a single characteristic, such as intelligence or appearance.
a. stereotyping
b. assumed similarity
c. selectivity
d. the halo effect
D
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience is known as ___.
a. learning
b. training
c. change
d. development
A
When behaviors are reinforced, they will be given more attention, be learned better, and performed more often. This is called ___.
a. reinforcement processes
b. motor reproduction processes
c. retention processes
d. attentional processes
A
If an employee does not exhibit a desired behavior, a manager might use ____.
a. positive reinforcement to increase the recurrence of the behavior
b. negative reinforcement by reducing the threat of a punishment
c. shaping to guide the employee to learn the desired behavior
d. all of the above
D
When people judge someone on the basis of the perception of a group they are a part of, they are using the shortcut called ___.
a. assumed similarity
b. stereotyping
c. self-serving bias
d. the halo effect
B
Which of the following is true concerning personality types and national cultures?
a. you would find many people with an internal locus of control in the US and Canada
b. north americans believe life is essentially predetermined
c. there is no relationship between nationality type and cultures
d. middle eastern countries believe they can dominate their environment
A
The big five model of personality includes all of the following except ___.
a. agreeableness
b. conscientiousness
c. extroversion
d. social interaction
D
The three key elements in the definition of motivation are effort, organizational goals, and needs.
True
The best managers are high in the need for power and high in the need for affiliation.
False
The key to reinforcement theory is that it ignores factors such as goals, expectations, and needs and focuses solely on what happens to a person when he or she takes some action.
True
Job design refers to the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs.
True
The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals based on the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need is ____.
a. leadership
b. need configuration
c. effort management
d. motivation
D
___ assumes that employees have little ambition, dislike work, and avoid responsibility.
a. theory y
b. theory x
c. belongingness need theory
d. self-actualization need theory
A
Difficult goals, when accepted, result in ___.
a. higher dissatisfaction
b. higher performance than easy goals
c. lower performance than easy goals
d. low satisfaction
B
Goal setting is more effective in cultures located in ___.
a. europe
b. asia
c. south america
d. north america
D
The higher your ____, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task.
a. self-esteem
b. self-efficacy
c. reinforcers
d. job scope
B
Horizontally expanding the tasks of a job is known by which of the following terms?
a. job enrichment
b. task improvement
c. job expansion
d. job enlargement
D
Which of the following is not an input according to equity theory?
a. pay level
b. education
c. experience
d. effort
A
In general, the research support for equity theory could be described as ___.
a. strong
b. inconclusive
c. moderate
d. weak
A
Which expectancy theory linkage explains the belief that having a high grade point average is critical in obtaining a good job?
a. expectancy
b. instrumentality
c. valence
d. goal setting to achievement
B
To maximize motivation among today's diverse workforce, managers need to think in terms of ____.
a. wants
b. consistency
c. flexibility
d. needs
C
___ is a scheduling system in which employees are free to vary work hours within certain limits.
a. flextime
b. job sharing
c. compressed workweek
d. telecommuting
A
Piece-rate pay plans, wage incentive plans, profit sharing, and lump-sum bonuses are examples of ___ programs.
a. expectancy theory
b. equity theory
c. pay-for performance
d. ope-book management
C
All of the following are mentioned in the textbook as suggestions to motivate professionals except ___.
a. providing them with ongoing challenging projects
b. using money and promotions
c. rewarding them with recognition
d. allowing them to structure their work in ways they find productive
B
Which of the following is not a suggestion for motivating employees?
a. recognize individual differences
b. individualize rewards
c. makes goals very difficult to achieve
d. match people to jobs
C
Compensation plans that pay employees based on teh basis of their contribution to the effectiveness of the organization are referred to as ___.
a. pay-for-performance programs
b. equity theory
c. expectancy theory
d. all of the above
A
___ is the degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.
a. skill variety
b. autonomy
c. task significance
d. task identity
B
In the storming stage of group development, intragroup conflict often occurs.
True
A norm is a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who occupies a given position in a social unit.
False
The interactionist view of conflict holds that some conflict is absolutely necessary for effective group performance.
True
An advantage of group decisions is that they increase acceptance of a solution.
True
When the ___ stage is complete, there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group and agreement on the group's direction.
a. performing
b. forming
c. storming
d. norming
C
An individual confronted by different role expectations has just encountered role ____.
a. ambiguity
b. purpose
c. identificaton
d. conflict
D
Work group norms are ___.
a. sometimes productive in influencing an individual's performance
b. very powerful in influencing an individual's performance
c. never powerful in influencing an individual's performance
d. always powerful in influencing an individual's performance
B
The ___ view of conflict argues that conflict must be avoided, that it indicates a problem within the group.
a. human relations
b. interactionist
c. traditional
d. dysfunctional
C
Group behavior is ___.
a. not merely the sum total of the behaviors of all the individuals in the group
b. the sum of the behaviors of all the individuals in the group
c. individual behaviors seeking the same goals
d. a set of interactions and independent behaviors of individuals with similar goals
A
The findings of Asch's experiment utilizing lines of different lengths would relate to which of the following?
a. workplace conformity
b. work group cohesiveness
c. role conflict
d. job status
A
In comparison to large groups, small groups ____.
a. have shorter group tenure
b. are better at obtaining diverse input
c. tend to be more homogeneous
d. are faster at completing tasks
D
Which of the following is a potential means of limiting the free rider effect?
a. be able to identify individual responsibility
b. reward groups collectively, not individually
c. provide merit pay that is proportional to group effectiveness
d. never allow an outsider into a group once it is formed
A
The degree to which members are attracted to a group and share the group's goals is referred to as ____.
a. group expansion
b. group norms
c. group diversity
d. group cohesiveness
D
Which of the following is not mentioned in the textbook as a conflict-resolution option?
a. contradiction
b. avoidance
c. accommodation
d. compromise
A
Which of the following is true concerning the effectiveness of individual decision making over group decision making?
a. groups are less creative than individuals
b. individuals are always outperformed by groups
c. individuals tend to be more accurate
d. groups are more accepting of the final decision
D
Bringing together organizational members from marketing, accounting, HR, and finance to work on a task would be an example of what type of team?
a. specific
b. functional
c. cross-functional
d. temporary
C
To be effective, teams should ___.
a. have formal documentation
b. have negotiating skills
c. have clear job goals
d. hold firm in their positions
C
Which role of leader is associated with effective teams?
a. controlling
b. salesperson
c. facilitator
d. directive
C
___ is an important part of the planning process in managing a team.
a. clarification of authority
b. determining roles
c. empowering members
d. goal determination
D
Which of the following is not an advantage of group decision making over individual decision making?
a. they generate more alternatives
b. there is less acceptance of a solution
c. they provide more information
d. there is increased legitimacy of the decision
B
Leaders influence a group toward the achievement of goals.
True
Not all leaders have the capabilities or skills needed to hold managerial positions.
True
Leadership is based on authority granted from organizational position.
False
Path-goal theory holds that subordinates with an external locus of control will be more satisfied with directive style.
True
Transactional and transformational leadership are opposing approaches to getting things done.
False
Which of the following is not true concerning the difference between managers and leaders?
a. managers influence through informal means
b. leaders may be appointed
c. manager are appointed
d. leaders can influence beyond formal authority
A
Research on leadership made it increasingly clear that predicting leadership success involved ____.
a. something more complex than isolating a few leader traits or preferable behaviors
b. proper analysis of leader consideration for people and concern for production
c. was more complex than a few leader styles
d. hiring managers that could demonstrate and develop trust with workers
A
Vroom and Yetton's leader participation model argues that leader behavior must ____.
a. adjust to reflect the task structure
b. depend on the situational variables involved
c. reflect the needs of the followers
d. develop to the appropriate leadership style
A
According to path-goal theory, a leader who lets subordinates know what's expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks is termed ___.
a. achievement oriented
b. participative
c. supportive
d. directive
D
In the path-goal theory, which of the following is included in the class of contingency variables termed "environment"?
a. task structure and formal authority system
b. employee satisfaction
c. perceived ability
d. locus of control and experience
A
Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory is a contingency theory that ____.
a. depends on the followers' situation
b. focuses on followers' readiness
c. focuses on the followers' situation
d. matches the situation with the followers' ability
B
Transactional leaders are leaders who guide ___.
a. or clarify the group's goals and roles
b. or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements
c. and clarify the followers' goals and task requirements
d. and direct groups towards their goals and tasks
B
A leader, such as Bill Gates of Microsoft, who can inspire followers above their own self-interests and can have a profound effect on their performance, are known as ___.
a. directive leaders
b. informational leaders
c. transformational leaders
d. transactional leaders
C
___ leadership is the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future for an organization or organizational unit that grows out of and improves on the future.
a. visionary
b. transactional
c. trait
d. charismatic
A
Which of the following is not an important leadership role for team leaders?
a. liaison with external constituencies
b. liaison with internal constituencies
c. conflict manager
d. troubleshooter
B
____ is the power that arises because of a person's desirable resources or personal traits.
a. legitimate power
b. referent power
c. reward power
d. expert power
B
The most dominant component of credibility is ____.
a. honesty
b. authority
c. expertise
d. status
A
The dimension of trust that is used to describe reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations is termed ___.
a. consistency
b. integrity
c. loyalty
d. competence
A
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the differences between gender and leadership style?
a. men are more democratic than women
b. women encourage more participation
c. males and females do not use different styles
d. men share power more than women
B
According to the text, men tend to use ___ leadership, handing out rewards for good work and punishment for bad.
a. transactional
b. initiating
c. situational
d. transformational
A
When decisions tend to be made at lower levels in an organization, the organization is said to be decentralized.
True
An organic organization tends to be characterized by high specialization, extensive departmentalization, narrow spans of control, high formalization, a limited information network, and little participation.
False
The final link in the communication process is feedback.
True
Information overload occurs when the information a person has to work with exceeds his or her processing capacity.
True
High performance work practices are those that lead to high individual and high organizational performance.
True
Job descriptions focus on the job, while job specifications focus on the person.
True
In the "white-water rapids" metaphor of change, managers should expect change at any time, and it may last for unspecified lengths of time.
True
Change threatens the investment you've already made in the status quo.
True
A major disadvantage of coercion is that is frequently illegal.
True
The term attitude usually refers to the affective component.
True
Being happy at work results in employees being productive workers.
False
People who believe that if they work hard, they will be successful would be described as having an internal locus of control.
True
Cross-functional teams are composed of people from didfferent work areas.
True
In the storming stage of group development, intragroup conflict often occurs.
True
As group size increases, the contirbution of individual members tends to decrease.
True
The three key elements in the definition of motivation are effort, organizational goals, and needs.
True
Based on McClelland's three-needs theory, high achievers perform best when the odds are against them.
False
The key to reinforcement theory is that it ignores factors such as goals, expectations, and needs and focuses solely on what happens to a person when he or she takes some action.
True
Leaders influence a group toward the achievement of goals
True
Not all leaders have the capabilities or skills needed to hold managerial positions.
True
Leadership is based on authority granted from organizational position.
False
Control is the process of monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned.
True
Market control is an approach to contorl that emphasizes the use of external market mechanisms to establish the standards used in the control system.
True
Operations management oversees the transformation process that converts resources such as labor and raw materials into goods and services.
True
According to the textbook, it is easy to see the operations management process at work in service organizations.
False
Organizational desing is based on decisions about ___.
a. centralization and decentralization
b. work specialization and departmentalization
c. chain of command and span of control
d. all of the above
D
Today's competitive business environment has greatly increased the importance of what type of departmentalization?
a. product
b. process
c. customer
d. geographic
C
Which one of Fayol's 14 principles of management helps preserve the concept of a continuous line of authority?
a. continuous demand
b. unity of demand
c. demand structure
d. unity of command
D
In organizations, the trend in recent years has been toward ___.
a. narrower span of control
b. the organization's structure being based on its financial position
c. increased chain of command
d. wider span of control
D
The degree to which jobs are standardized and guided by rules and procedures is called ____.
a. centralization
b. formalization
c. decentralization
d. work specialization
B
In describing the relationship between structure and strategy, it can be said that ___.
a. strategy and structure are always handled equally
b. strategy follows structure in smaller organizations
c. structure follows strategy
d. strategy follows structure
C
According to Woodward's studies, what type of production works best with a mechanistic structure?
a.process
b. unit
c. mass
d. product
C
In studies of the structure of an organization to uncertainty in the environment, organizations that face higher uncertainty are more ____.
a. mechanistic
b. organic
c. technologically pure
d. supportive of technological change
B
Communication is the transfer and understanding of ____.
a. words
b. ideas
c. meaning
d. concepts
C
The specific reason that the importance of effective communication for managers can't be overemphasized is that ___.
a. every organization uses communications
b. all verbal communications require face-to-face interaction
c. everything a manager does involves communicating
d. every communication a manager writes goes within the organization
C
By definition, noise ____.
a. has to be noisy
b. is distrubances that interfere with the transmission, receipt, or feedback of a message
c. disrupts to the point that it makes communicating improbable
d. does no exist if communications are completed
B
An example of a nonverbal communication would be ____.
a. a billboard along the highway
b. a written note
c. an outline on the blackboard
d. a student with a hand raised
D
The extent of filtering within an organization tends to be a function of the number of vertical levels in the organization and the ____.
a. degree of formalization
b. degree of centralization
c. organizational culture
d. none of the above
C
Listening is an active search for meaning, whereas ___ is passive.
a. speaking
b. decoding
c. encoding
d. hearing
D
All of the following are mentioned in the textbook as barriers to effective interpersonal communication except ____.
a. defensiveness
b. filtering
c. feedback
d. selective perception
C
Listening for full meaning without making premature judgments of interpretations is called ___.
a. active listening
b. temporary listening
c. prevalent listening
d. passive listening
A
High-performance work practices are characterized by ___.
a. allowing managers to lead in their own best style
b. allowing employees to loaf on the job as long as they can produce average daily production levels
c. improving knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees
d. all of the above
C
In organizations, ___ programs ensure that protected classes are retained and their opportunities are maintained.
a. needs-based analysis
b. functional
c. affirmative action
d. global human resource management
C
An assessment that defines the jobs and behaviors necessary to perform the job is known as a ____.
a. job specification
b. job analysis
c. job description
d. goal-oriented job definition
B
A written statement of what a job holder does, how it is done, and why it is done is known as ____.
a. job specification
b. job description
c. goal-oriented job definition
d. process departmentalization
B
While ___ reaches a tremendous number of people, it also generates many unqualified candidates for jobs.
a. an advertisement
b. a private employement agency
c. a public emeployment agency
d. the internet
D
As a source of potential job candidates, ___ generates the best referrals, because a good referral reflects on the source of the reccomendation.
a. employee referrals
b. advertisments
c. the internet
d. public employment agencies
A
Recruitment is the process of ____.
a. locating, identifying, and attracting potential employees
b. hiring employees from competitors
c. measuring the pressure in the local labor market
d. hiring from outside the organization
A
If an organization makes an error in the selection process, the organization has _____.
a. not hired a good employee
b. hired the right employee
c. hired the wrong employee
d. A and C
D
Stimulating innovation is an integral part of ____.
a. the first-line managers job
b. middle-level management's job
c. top management's job
d. every manager's job
D
In organizations, people who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process are called ___.
a. operations managers
b. change agents
c. charismatic leaders
d. change masters
B
Managers' options for change essentially fall into what three categories?
a. mission, structure, and people
b. environment, technology, and mission
c. structure, technology, and people
d. mission, environment, and process
C
All of the following are mentioned in the textbook as actions that managers can use to deal with resistance to change except ___.
a. facillitation and support
b. diversification
c. participation
d. education and communication
B
____ is using direct threats or force on those who resist change.
a. negotiation
b. education and communication
c. cooptation
d. coercion
D
Which of the following represents the relationship between organizational culture and change?
a. culture can never be purposely changed
b. culture can change in months but not weeks
c. culture tends to be very resistant to change
d. culture and change are naturally compatible
C
Stress, in and of itself, is ____.
a. beneficial to those who use it
b. not necessarily bad
c. harmful, especially if not managed by exercise
d. healthful in most cases
B
Organizational behavior focuses on ____.
a. group behavior
b. individual behavior
c. departmental behavior
d. A and B
D
The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job or actively participates in it refers to the employee's _____.
a. organizational commitment
b. job satisfaction
c. global commitment
d. job involvement
D
Which of the following is true about organizationally committed and satisfied employees?
a. higher rates of cognitive dissonance
b. lower rates of turnover and absenteeism
c. much higher pay levels
d. higher rates of voluntary turnover
B
Emotional intelligence has been shown to be ___.
a. positively related to job performance only in government agencies
b. negatively related to job performance in management only
c. positively related to job performance at all levels
d. negatively related to job performance at all levels
C
____ theory explains how we judge people differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior.
a. social contrast
b. behavior
c. emotions and emotional intelligence
d. attribution
D
By using ___, we form an impression about a person based on a single characteristic, such as intelligence or appearance.
a. the halo effect
b. selectivity
c. stereotyping
d. assumed similarity
A
___ is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
a. problem solving
b. learning
c. technical training
d. skill-based management
B
The _____ stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior.
a. performing
b. forming
c. storming
d. norming
D
Groups can be ____.
a. informal
b. large
c. formal
d. either informal or formal
D
An individual confronted by different role expectations has just encountered role ____.
a. identification
b. purpose
c. conflict
d. abiguity
C
Large groups consistently get better results than smaller ones, when the group is involved in ___.
a. a fast and appropriate decision
b. goal clarity
c. problem solving
d. free-rider tendency
C
When cohesiveness is low and goals are not supported, cohesiveness has ___ on productivity.
a. marginal effect
b. no significant effect
c. consistent effect
d. significant effect
B
The findings of Asch's experiment utitilizing lines of different lengths would relate to which of teh following?
a. work group cohesiveness
b. role conflict
c. workplace conformity
d. job status
C
According to the textbook, which of the following is not identified as a type of conflict that differentiates functional from dysfunctional conflict?
a. relationship conflict
b. task conflict
c. process conflict
d. ethical conflict
D
Difficult goals, when accepted, result in ___.
a. higher dissatisfaction
b. higher performance than easy goals
c. lower performance than easy goals
d. low satisfaction
B
Goal setting works best when the goals are ____.
a. infinite
b. indefinite
c. moderately challenging
d. specific
D
A theory that suggests that employees compare their inputs and outcomes from a job to the ratio of input to outcomes of relevenat others is known as ____.
a. action motivation
b. equity theory
c. reinforcement theory
d. goal setting
B
The importance that an individual places on a potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on teh job is known as ____.
a. valence or attractiveness of reward
b. operant learning opportunity
c. goal-setting behavior
d. effort performance linkage or expectancy
A
According to McClelland, the need to make others behave in a way that they wouldn't have behaved otehrwise is which of the following work motives?
a. need for motivation
b. need for achievement
c. need for affiliation
d. need for power
D
The higher your ___, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task.
a. self-efficacy
b. self-esteem
c. job scope
d. reinforcers
A
___ is the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs.
a. job enrichment
b. job scope
c. job enlargement
d. job design
D
Research by Fiedler uncovered three contingency dimensions that define the key ____.
a. situational factors for determining leader effectiveness
b. leader behavioral style factors for determining leader effectiveness
c. follower factors for determinging leader effectiveness
d. situational factors for determining follower effectiveness
A
Fiedler assumed a person's leadership style was ____.
a. dimensional
b. contingent
c. fixed
d. relative
C
A leader who sets challenging goals and expects very high performance levels from subordinates would be classified as what type of leader, according to path-goal theory?
a. democratic
b. achievement oriented
c. supportive
d. participative
B
In path-goal theory, which of the following is included in the class of contingency variables termed "environment"?
a. locus of control and experience
b. employee satisfaction
c. perceived ability
d. task structure and formal authority system
D
Research on path-goal theory could be summarized as ____.
a. very unsupportive
b. inconclusive
c. positive support
d. negative support
C
Transactional leaders are leaders who guide ___.
a. or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements
b. and direct groups towards their goals and tasks
c. or clarify the group's goals and roles
d. and clarify the followers' goals and task requirements
A
Which type of leaders provedes individualized consideration, provide intellectual stimulation, and prossess charisma?
a. transactional
b. charismatic
c. transformational
d. trait
C
Managers can't really know whether their work units are working properly until they've evaluated what activities have been done ___.
a. and have compared actual performance to a desired standard
b. and evaluate the performance of each of their employees
c. witho those that remain
d. none of the above
A
Bureaucratic control relies upon ___.
a. shared values
b. units acting as individual profit centers
c. administrative rules and regulations
d. managerial autonomy
C
According to the textbook, the control process assumes that ___.
a. employee monitoring costs are part and parcel of doing business
b. performance standards are already in place
c. performance standards must be created
d. employees require constant direction from management
B
According to the textbook, ____ is the overall output of goods or services produced divided by the inputs needed to generate that output.
a. productivity
b. forfeiting
c. correlation
d. factoring
A
____ provide(s) managers with quantitative standards against which to measure and compare resource allocation.
a. reengineering
b. orgainzation charts
c. budgets
d. tqm
C
Which of the following financial control measures is calculated by taking after-tax operating profit minus total annual cost of capital?
a. real value added
b. market value added
c. economic value added
d. principle value added
C
According to the textbook, studies have shown that ____ is a predictor of ____.
a. market value added; principle value added
b. economic value added; real value added
c. economic value added; market value added
d. principle value added; economic value added
C
Which of the following is not related to the meaning of management information systems?
a. the work system implies order, arrangement, and purpose
b. it's meant to provide managerial information on a regular basis
c. to be considered a system, it needs to be on a computer and not manually regulated
d. it provides data and information
C
Operations management encompasses which of the following topics?
a. productivity
b. quality
c. efficiency
d. all of the above
D
Which of the following are examples of inputs as described by an organization's operation system?
a. materials
b. technology
c. information
d. all of the above
D
Which of the following is an accurate statement?
a. labor is part of the transformation stage and is not considered an input
b. operations managers are not found in teh service sector
c. the outputs of the operations system include both goods and services
d. operations mangement concerns only the input stage of product development
C
Deming believed which of the following?
a. employees should learn movement efficiency not statistical methods
b. managers are the primary source of increased productivity
c. training is generally wasted time
d. high productivity comes from good people management
B
Which of the following is one of Deming's 14 points for improving management's productivity?
a. raise the quality of your line supervisors
b.plan for a long-term future
c. train your employees in new skills as the need arises
d. all of the above
D
___ is the performance characteristics, feature and attributes, and any otehr aspects of goods and services for which customers are willing to give up resources.
a. convenience
b. performance
c. value
d. cost
C
The ____ is the entire series of organizational work activities that add value at each step beginning with the processing of raw materials and ending with finished product in the hands of end users.
a. ethical chain
b. financial chain
c. supply chain
d. value chain
D
All of the following are characteristics of value chain management except it ____.
a. is externally oriented
b. is efficiency oriented
c. focuses on efficient flow of incoming materials to the organization
d. is effectiveness oriented
B