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35 Cards in this Set

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formal leaders
those who are officially assigned leadership responsibilities
informal leaders
those who are not officially assigned leadership roles, but who may actually exercise the leadership function
organizational power (7)
legitimate power
reward power
coercive power
expert power
charisma power
referent power
informaiton power
dimensions of leadership
from studies of University of Michigan

task centered
people centered
managerial grid
categorize the leadership styles of managers
legitimate power
power assigned to an individual who occupies a specific position within that organization
reward power
managers are given admin power over a range of rewards

subordinate employees desire the rewards, they will be influenced by the possibility of receiving them as a product of their work performance
coercive power
managers ability to punish an employee

punishment or the threat of punishment does not promote desired employee performance-- it only discourages undesired worker actions
expert power
this power is derived fromt the individuals special skills, knowledge, abilities, or previous experience.
charisma power
the power of one individual to influence another by force of character
referent power
power gained by association
information power
derived from the possession of important information at a critical time when such information is necessary to org functioning
theories of leadership
genetic theory
trait theory
behavioral approach
situational approach
Fiedlers Contingency Model
Path goal Theory
genetic theory
belief that leadership ability is transmitted genetically
trait theory
this is a genetic approach

assumes that leaders are born not made

lives and management styles of well-known executives are subjected to close scrutiny by those seeking to determine the personal traits necessary for managerial success.
behavioral approach
sought to determine 0ne best leadership style that would work effectively in all situations

task orientation
employee orientation
task orientation
initiating structures

actions taken by the leader to accomplish the job
employee orientation
consideration

actions that characterize the way in which a leader relatres to and approaches subordinates
conclusions of behavioral approach (4)
1 leadership has at least 2 dimensions and is more complex than either a genetic or trait approach

2 leadership styles are flexible; managers can change the mix of task orientation and employee orientation as the situation requires

3 leadership styles are not innate; they can be learned

4 there is no one right style of leadership
situational approaches
contingency approach

complex vew of leadership that examines leadership styles, abilities, and skills and the needs of the situation
situation must be understood from 4 different dimensions
managerial characteristics
job characteristics
nature of the org
worker characteristics
managerial characteristics
skills
motivation
needs
experience
rewards
job characteristics
nature of the work
challenge of the work
teamwork requirements
nature of the org
org rules and policies
corporate culture
time and resource availability
org's performance expectation
worker characteristics
worker needs
worker values and personalities
worker experience levels
rewards
Fiedlers Contingency Model
situational approach

contingent on leader's behavior and how it interacts with aspects of the situation

based on least preferred coworker (LPC)
Variables in Fiedler's model
LPC
task structure
leader - member relations
leader position power
task structure
structued: describes a simple and routine task

unstructured: is a complex and non routine task
leader/member relations
the amount of confidence and trust each has in the other as well as the amount of shared respect

The more trust, confidence, and respect=increased leadership effectiveness
leader position power
actual power of the leader within the org measured from strong to weak
major outcome of Fiedler's approach
given measures of situational variables a certain effective leadership style is recommended
Path Goal Theory developed by
Marting Evans and Robert House
Path Goal theory maintains that a worker will be motivated to perform if:
1 he believes that the job can be accomplished (expectancy)

2 the rewards offered are suitable for the desired task accomplishments (instrumentality)

3 the rewards are meaningful to the individual (valence)
leader behaviors classified into 4 different classes
instrumental behaviors
supportive behaviors
participative behaviors
achievement oriented behaviors
instrumental behaviors
managerial functions of planning, task assignment, controlling worker behavior